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.(Jjiudl J^l^-aJI Cy J^ 60 ._Li*=1 .2 

.JjIJI J1jL<t£p1j , watch-glass ^1^ ^L^ ,j-JLi]1 LL .3 

..UL^Lj^Hi Jl j=. SUI j ,<jj2JI J=5U ,jJi ^11 LJi^kjl oLj!^ Jail .4 

J La. (ji JjJJI Jljla ^jJa-JI r J J' -^jLaj 3 aJ-Jj 'I -j^H JaiLaJI Jj-aJL J ■ "LJLi itjjju ^jjajjl d^a. .5 

■lp^->^ Jails. Jja-j A.K. 
.<Sj3j ijjj <t£jj1 j <,jjji£J1 ^11 JaiLaJI ii)_>a_a ._ft]aL Jjjiil .6 

■ .jIuji ., ? -. il ^j J^j <jhi Sjl^j hydrometer jar i^jL^jj^ JvljU,,.l ^1 LaK ^^LlJI jail .7 

.fLJl <iLiLi 

jJsLuHI jjj£j .1 
.f LaJI 4iLiL^ ij^LiJijjjjjt <il jkjjl ^^jXJ^I /ajSLaJI Jj \r\.A 1* ^ Jjs60 ■ "' • 

.IX.K <4el >UI .la. J < CLajjJ-i^JI j"' >a a Z*- 1-3 |h '^ 3 ^"3"° * 

.a 20 ^^ Uljijl ^-uj^lo ^j *~ a j ^ 0"° ^y^** a 5I i^aJl *^a.jj f— s olj ijlIjI ji^ j_*LJLjI a^l ^3 .is.1 ■ -^ » • 

^jjkdl J Cxi li J I jJJsSj . t_a 

^ J ' ' a U lia^ Ij <d] ya-ajl ■ -^ 1 lj! ^jj-aLi. td ya-fi LaJ-aJLim <<jlia_i sliAjjJ-i^JI d \ljU , ,.' a ^U ..11 r 1 V*l • 

. CLajjJ_i£jl j"' >a ^ 
liiljj iiilj40 ,'- ' j*"Jji' '(j II acljS ia.j ff-lxaVI Ji^Sjl (jj <Jaij <jl ■ aLi -*jQj ■ "^ blJ£ ''jAj^J Jj' " 

.i\cf» <4el sill aj_4 ^JaiLuj .tdl ya— ajl ■ -^ ■ " Ja_j 

: t>JaJI J CxluiU ifjUl iiojiJI 



100 

(5) x ^"^ = ( W/W ) [oLJt+^t] % 



28 



:^jjkJJ <jjj-iJ1 <j_uAJ1 



(6) 




(f-)^,jUL 4J LJ! <jj2J! 


■^..(lli.y.ji J....MI 


(V) 


[(W/W) jJJ %] - [(W/W) aJ^JU i yJJI %] = (W/W) ad^JI % 



(fim) jliliajj^AB 50 J^'.. j,«~ jl- -II ■ .<,,,l ..-.1 ...IIj^jUII J.jlL.II oU_>UI JiJ Ju • 
.i 105 ajl^^^jJ Jjc JJJ1 JI^L J^>J '*j^;ti ^..K, ak • 

i J^_>U <JjUl Zy.i\\\ 



(8) 




: sf lLiJl^,_,ii 1 ^j Ja^JI jjjj i(jl Cio^, 


(9) 


l(L).J^^-l(L)->^^+J»J= (£)J*Jujj 



29 



*Li.j j ls - ^ ^L^ 24 ) ^j s_Lli_i <iLi. 4_s>j ij^jjLujl fe-1^ ^S_ijlS_Lajl JjiiJLl' ?>ji-Ij * ^-^ ^^ ^- L!LJ •— ' "* % --^ 

.( f °105 lj^ 

LiAj 100 ,j£i jl^ja^l ,_^1 jjlj <%100 (_^jLiij Jjs_>JI (jJ] dal . J.VI . ^jLHj ■-■! ■ ■■!! f jaai jj^f O ' ^T^f ^ 



3jjjJl j»l^a 



jjj^j 



'Lu^jiUI ,^^1 ^Ijil iijaj (jia; , jil jiJI ±Jia J!lU^(>j .(4 iijJiJl!l)USDAtextiiral triangle 



30 



100 




cUj% 



USDA JjjUI j*1 jS &Jla .4 jiSj JiiiJI 



31 



<LtaiAaJI 3'n^1l3.4 

Ujjjj LllG ^Ij Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) CH i fi j-J1 -.jjjj-n-JI d\..,\< ^^lI <^ oLuLi 
jjjIj-o ■-- \j j3j .Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) JjLUI ~ j: ^j.^ii <jjU1 <j_^aJL 

.(Richards, 1954 ) ■»■! .^l^v.^ti *^* J J.-.^Ud^jV^.-.hLw ah.^f ^jjj^l ^....d.jlaJ 

JS fe-l^J .iLalL*' *_l-sj^ <ijLaJl (J^J-Sj ■—' *"- *** > ..i aIi (Qj^ajjl jj>k1 , .i^ ^_Lijjj JS_iLuj ij_aJLujj < l±D JJ 

***** ** ^ 

.Ui-Jjjj 

** * ** ** 

*Jjj jjt ■!-'-■ -II .-.I .^.1^* ... .11 i tjjj->p' ij-"^- 1 *- a LJI^. .CI j iHCO-i iCO-i 'SO^i : ^j 

J j... .11 

.mixing spoons -L^UI ^ jj ^ilajl spatula (Vj^Ll^) u'./ji 
.vacuum filtration system j^yUI Jl+a. 

.(jjLujjJ ,jj • 1 *''°t u' (j" 2 ,jj J3n Lul jj» isLi. -Ljj £■ 300—200 jj .1 
•ILLS ~ » "-~j (( jLu11Lj iijajJI ~-i" ■ ■• ijjj *- (spatula) u .,- ji . ^ jJj -ji~° ~n * LJ1 sLjj . a.^.1 .2 
Vlj (ijlii jjl j j j *! '■ ' - •* N ' t~ ■ ■■' -11 jj-u j! jaj LaS -1 (j 'li* jj~~- -II sltjJI JLs 1 jl 5LJ3 jj!iLjjji1J 

. vi e1_a /^l <G_l^jlJ1 «Ja_i_u (jl^ [LjuLli 

jl ^LaJl ^^ j j V* <11_i-i|_j tdJ^j <ljl_ 1 _ l jl * * ...**. 11 yjjljLo ,jhjJ ui^l A-i ^<^Li_u ^i^ ^'^j ■ ^~- ^'1 <Q_i^jij1 td ^jl .3 

d ^> ' ^- II -^ ^<j slljl 

yl^jj /•— ^ ^' h ^ ^ • • '* A-* v"' j fl ^ d "j 1 T^-^ji ?** o-°J ^^L-u 16—6 aj-aJ <G_l^jlJ1 td G' .4 
.Whatman No. 42 ^j-ii^iijj j_^j j^i^^-Uii^Jj^jj^^^buclmer funnel 

JtlJjSt Tt-iiiljJI jjK Ijlj -Ja-M II oLuLliJI JaJ ^jj 1(j1^°-1j ajjiiiS Sjjjlj ^i jt-iiil^l J-aa.1 .5 

32 



^ajIjJI J^JJJI AiaSJ^ A j 15^i1l 4*uJI ^-i^bj 4.4 

iaiui (jb 1-0) kPa 100-0 «b$lsj JJfc i^nflVntl JL^aJI J 

.one-bar pressure plate extractor jL j^Jj Jai^i ^^.M ->•:,, .VI j|_^ 
.one-bar ceramic plates jL j.=J j U-, .a. ^I^a^ jLJJ 

.balance jl jj* 
.drying oven .JuLaJ ^^ 

.<j^I]1 — iijL^JI t^a^. I . .Ir jl -j 1*1 -fl Jjl iLI 

^ + j 

» ' ■"*!! ia.j-1 **- tLi 24 ajJ o LaJI jji ■'■I '-Ij ■ ■ ■■!! j I 'tJ j-iiJ . 1 

** * * 

* -* -* lJ\£ (_£ JL&iJj . ( *Q_iaJl ^y* 9 20 ^Jl^_i.) Ia_i_ii_iAjl LaJ.i*Li_LiA da]-* II ^_*J i_^ 2, Lul^jt <lLa. <j^ / L-1- ^ -^ 

.<liaJI ^j I j 1 XI . <j_>1]1 <l *' "* » ■ ■-■ i ■"■! i i i~. II 

.<liaJI ,jjijS jjjJj (j^4j -<ii=J' ^a^'J-H ~-l" ■ ■• J.$_a .5 

l_ij>lj) eLaJl [j-^-iii ,-Ii ■^■lal^. II ^j_u eLajl . a . --.I A-i • J * a ■ ■'*' ^y *Q_iaJI ljIs jj ~~» e LaJLi ,3_lJajl l^-&\ -O 



33 



.■ Hj* i n HL o-LiJ^ ji (jjs-z 3jJ? S^ ij^ -^ 

.JJJI JljLollaJId^l .8 

.^jLi-lJL 

(2jJj ^j*^j" ■ .-M JI » Uall . ,^ ^^J^ali Ia_i_uj]1 ai -^j ^-M A~,,,WI jl(j -■■ Ja, ..1 ^ .-.hj-.ll «_a j^UII .^ . 1 1 

^K^^jJi Jio : ijUiK a ^"0"<iLJI ^.;» J ^,^~i1,> Vu ^ U~... V1 jl^ jlrl .13 
.(jLl-O)KPa 100-0 JU Jl^. ;-._... ,hJI U.aH jI. 1 : Jl— .L, 

■ a jj LgaHJl ■ i I il jl ^.a lA^jXajl eLajl * *^ I ' '■j lrt '''' l_j^_1jI O^-J &-H [J-lJ^ ^-^ ■ 1^ 

(jilj <£iLuj 20—18 5jli) ^JaJI (j-a jj~- ~ll ,jj o LaJI o'_>ti3 .—fiSjJjV ~- ■ ■ j I U Jl Ui , All J^ JaiLa. . 15 

. { yiSljl <^Li_u 48 l_j iljl ^y* 9 l^jl ij^A-lJ 

( jLg^sJI (JJ f LaJI ajjt Jj3 i a.j.>-*ll . i .1 *.1 J . — in ^ ^.M k~,,S\ jl ^ a ^ Ui . a.11 jj^. . 16 

J ^ U~..N 1 jl^ ,~i1 .17 

^.a jj-iijj) ^j \jJI ■ ii£ .Jl jiijL _L_i_ii_La d U1 . . 'j » OuilaJI *-a <As Jl 4_iylJl OU '^ tjljl < yii.lj /^l <jjJ . 18 

.(<J£J1 <J_>UI ilaJ^^jUl JaJI Jjjj.^ll 

ajljiia.jj JJ£ i aja-^'ll JaJ ^ jjjULs l(j- . a -^ <(*!_>£ 0.01 ^ia.<4ljn <-ii=J1 oLloJI <£ j ■ ■■-,jj .19 

.<LU 24 5^^105 

.iaia^JI .-.l'>j-ll ^jj Jl ,Jjj -. aa~ Jl ^ ■-■!*> j- II «_Li .20 



(10) 100 y l£l : _ ifl =( R ) j'j L J° A 

fpj <jLJI iijSJI 



34 



hx^a (jL 15-0) kPa 1500-100 ib^Isj JJfc i^UJI JL^aJI .o 

.fifteen-bar ceramic plate extractor jL 15 Ua .^ y^^M ^i,,.vi j|_^ 
.fifteen-bar ceramic plates jL 15 (±LJ ^a^ jLJj 

.<aLU=j cilia. 

■ojj 3^=' 
.burette J-U ... 



t~i .-^H llJaj -J'-l i ■■!! iLj^kJI ^j Lai 12— 1 ,jj .-.IjU^ II *__u!j jLs 15 .*lj -Ijj . ..II jLlkl ij-ilxj .1 

.(jL15-l)kPal500- lOO^^HJI 

.JjJJI JljL oLlaJI dyl .3 

. ij-U-i^ajl eLa_i LuV^. a^^LiA d a La ■ ■' ^Jl ' ^'j'^'' ■ ■ I il jl J-i-a .4 

<J vHJl J_b£ij^ILi. f,3_lJajl ^_3 oLiiajl * I a a j a i—ki)-b£alljl i^J^^aJj ^ILi. jj-a jLiXi_ij J 1 jl fl a fl oLiiajl td G' .5 
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.J-aa. j3jjljUI ^Jl Jj^sjJIj oLlhJI J£ ^ ,_a3 j2 j3 

jl (j ~ II (jJI oLaJI aJj£ *JljJ ^kjjj-alJI ^jJjLiI J "-'I .6 

. jL^JI ja Ki i ^l l JJf ^. .7 

.41.LJI iL^I^ Lai 20-17 <> oljkiJI ^1 .8 



(il) ioo x jg • -^ ( ^ • rl r_ = (ty<jjt,j% 



35 



. I (jll, l >* . .. I ■ -^ ■ -j l >t— V I . . I , ^. 1 j3 

^jl^ I jl .(sjjjj-cJI jjt "diiij) tLj 3—2 JO* >alj ~ . . ^ .j .JjsJI f Lijl Ui .All ^jjjij V jjl tjaj .2 

J i,^~l Id ^ 1 -* jl_a -ajaj ijl J — a-J tJLi-O ^J a ' ^ i a J-Si_ClJl 

dUI t ^a Ui , All j [J a ^l ^*,,,VI jl q-. ,IUA a J. \~ V .3 
ijjjljljl <JUJ Jjj^ajD ■ -jIUJI (^jjijjl (2,ji Jjla'H (^jiiJ La J3l <iLJI ^ <1hJI ? Liijl jji; j! ^J^f -4 

.<iLJI ^ii \j- II i (jjjl x_a I ^jU IV^.^-.M! 

Sjtiyj JjtiUl f-Udl &ujj<iU! 4xuJjl available water (AW) SMyJ Jj&JI f-UJi .5 
jjjj^a ^ *Jj7- -" *L=J <j-^ tf* SjliJLl JJUI *LJ1 <i^ available water capacity (AWC) 

<a_i_ujl ^^pJ 4-M-"J lS"" 1 -^ 3 -^ LpS*'"* c_s~^ k3~^ J'-^-'J .oljI-ijJl d la i ljIj i d i a I i *>~^' ^n ■*» (_C>-Jlj ^>"l 

.pennanent wilting point (PWP) i^ljJI JjjJJI <Jaiij (FC) field capacity iJi-J 



(12) 1*1U!JjjJJIU&%- * Js- H *. . ..it % = £jtiyjJj(2J!eLJ!<*-^% 



•' 



"jo?"- -ti^j^jtij-ij^i aj ^ J ji^<ja a ti <j ...ti .^e/rf capacity (FC)&ujj$jJ 4jJsL*Jf 4*udf .6 

(jUl/10) kPa 10 ( j J iiJ1 f .1 J aJ1o1i V jai 

(jL.1/3) kPa33 i^^UI jJjUl o1J VJ U1 

(jL.1/2) kPa50 ^Ul jJjUl olJ VJ UI 

JL ii^ i^ljJI JjjJJI <J=i; permanent wilting point (PWC) 4muj£UI daJfjJ JjjJJI Jhsu .7 

i * * 

J1~ ~H laj-iia^jjij oLiUI 9 IjiV LLlL <^jjla *j -(jLs 15) kPa 1500 ijjJ-aJI <-Li ■■''!! (JjjLjLi Lsj-a£ 

.<lGa-J1 i>ji=_>JI ol J oLlLiilJ jLi 25-10 (^aj 



36 



^jjjdJ ^SUaAfll JjlVill .5 



(Brady and Weil, oLj ^ a-a ^J ^Jl caUHJ 4jujjIujVi jj-u* 4jJUjJI 4jjI JJUI jj-cUxJI lAxuaj 

1999) 

<^iLJI oLiJI ^Jj ^ %95-90 (jllja. Ji^ ■'" ~ (jjtj liiujjjpl iujjull j^L ^j^il iulikJI j ■ ^-1 ''- il .1 

rCaMg.Si.jiliJI^^I^IjiJI^^^sLuJI .3 
.B ,C1 ,Co ,Cu ,Fe ,Mn ,Mo ,Ni ^Zn^^i^JI <L^I jiJI ^.LaJI .4 

. L^_ufiLb£ilol *LiLl3j <jj' jiJl s_i-fiLlaj' a s-^j ls - ^ ^H-J^ ls - "*"^ *Lu_uJ1 ,j_d^jui .3 

(Walsh and Beaton, 1973; Page, 1982; .dJi. «ii*iJI j^J^I ^i Uj^ J <^ ^ i^1>J1 
<ikla ^,jU i^iU L£I_>-lL *j-l^ (ji Ul_>: ^1 ^Ijkll jLiii J LJjLa. jU .Westerman, 1990) 
^l^jkil ajjLJI L»1j-aJI I *' ■ *y ui>ja.j Jj ,,-~. ~ilj ~'.j jljjiVI <aj3 (^jj <La!lLc j^j^ ■'■■j- iCWANA 

^jljbJI ^lj3j-a<^UI interpreting the rlata.-^'^'l' j^"ii"i^- -jj''<-*---i ~ji-~- -i'<ii iv ^jj—j- 

.analytical procedures 4jlL1^jJI 



37 



JS_ilJl (J^ aJjJaJl ouJiJl ■ a -^j ^S-uj .9—3 ^^H^ >— > s^l' ^u* * JS_iLi_ja Jj^j-ajl 4_s yJji pH. ^jJ r" jl jIjj 

,(7.5-6.5) i-jLi ,(6.5-5.0) l^j^J! <LJ3 ^J! 4k2u> ,(5.0 j> Jal pH) <Lj,j^J1 Sjumz :^JLU1 

.(8.5 (>_>^ pH)i J ^2//4jjj J ij <(8.5-7.5)ij^2//i/jtiI<. 

jj-aLaJI uUj'J iJ J ^ (isjjJI (ji <jj1 Jill j ■ ^-1 ''- II ajij ^jl^ LijjSfc (ji <J>J' pH tsyj <jjj61 ^ ~^~ 

j^jiJI jjtj .^jJjjJ LLiAJI j , (clay/humus) colloids (JUiJI /o^') Syj*J' UjIj* ^ pH .Juji; 

^jjj^-ijl ^ Li±ij_uLi j^yiiJLiljl ^Jl ^p j* ' ^ I' *Lul ,jijl >_L^Liajl alaa_aj ij a . . .j a II ^LiaS J-i-iS ,prl *La.j,JJ d >"* I' 

.(Mo) fJ iiu] >( Jj(B) 

iblsudt ' J^LtLJI ^i j^=J jU La LJLi ^^i ,aJUJI (^jiiaUJI dVr, jUh Jl ^ix^ tl'-Jj. A..U II ^j_>1]1 _>jj»^ 

^j^Sj La Laj-a£ LiLLi. yij I lA-IaLLijI u^i ^j]^ ^J "^* lj J ■ ' *~~- " ' V*' jUaaJ I J^Jajt v^iij ■'"■ >-* 4jjfj^Jfj 

~ ^Ij jjljji -k- 3 ^^; ■''■j- ,(CaCCh) -jj. ..IKH oUjjji A>?-j j * 7 j" 7 *3jJI pH i -jS jjLJG ^1 ,i;jl3 
<ikla (ji 8.5-8.0 <jjUI pH ij3 AJjjj .%10 fLJI jjK ^^~- ^ ol_>l=3 <j>U1 ^l ■ °j ■ "'■ Lajjt 
^ 8.5 ,> jS^i ^1\ £&jp. 3 -^-,'7 ti ^ J .-j'- - 11 iioJSlI V _>UI ^ JJL> ^J oj^ (j^>- l^ -C WANA 

{ d i ^j , ,-. 11 i_j ^IJl ) *j t ^j . ^* II ^>a 4l1jIj *LLai ftf-^ LC~J~"* ~* Lf^^ L — J ^>-"' 
OjIS Ijl La_i^ ^J "^^ \J^ -^>"' ol yili_a [ r& l^j ' ' r - oLi_uLlijl yi^l ^j-a ^J ^ILj" prl jj-uLli j ^^ » ,tdj,JJ 

1 : 1 L^-a ^i <j_>IJI pH i^ij-ia. ia.j J jj^-* ^f^ l*4; ^ "J°j -£jj^ j' i p 'J^^ ''t lJ ^ :l - - d j --^-^ <j>J' 

:(McKeague, 1978; McLean, 1982) 

.pH meter with combined electrode d_>iAJI ■ -Uail ^_a pH jLj^. 

.glass rod ^^.U-J ^_>^a 
.glass beaker ^^.U-J jip jjli 



JJLiwaJI 



jbaaJI pUJI 
pH 7.0 jtlala (jjuLS J^i^.a 
pH 4.0 jtiala (jjuLS J^i^.a 



38 



.Jji 100 <i- "'u?^? j lJ-^l^ ([" ^ (J - * J^ ) Lul jj6 4iL>. is__£ t-^® tjj -1 
. l J_ i 50 <jlj_u ^ -* lBj'J^-J ^^-j^- j ■ ■'' I ^,* ^~ . ..^ ^ci^flll ^ulJI t^y* J^ 50 ■ ''••>' .2 
.<l_iij 30 aj-aj ^^Ll^ji d >jI ^-» -' >^ ' ^ j ' > > ■ *> a Laj^ILuiA v *^ 3 ^"3"° 

30 jjuSsljiJI ^.(^3 ^ljijj^)^l^l^ combined electrode d_>iii-JI ■ -Uail ^^s^iL^ .6 
jjljjl fLJI ^Liii ijLuuj -j^l^j K^i jbfl^l* pLaJLi bj-^ J l -^'j '^Ja-JI (__,.a djlJLJI ^Jaill r>=.i -7 

. ^L^JI K.G1 ^y* *LLaij - * ' "' "'> K.G1 __j-a J^li-o (j-1^ LC~J~"* * '^J~ ' ■ ■ l~d '' ^j ' 0"° >^Li ■ 1 

[j-ii3 < y^/.7.0j 4.0 a jl^ <i_ii]l an^ ^ ^ > *u\ ^ ^ 1 >a^ >iji^. ^ J3j 1 (tf-1^ Lojilj_iiA pri j' @ -* U > , ^.1 .2 

djlii-JI ^JaiJI [j^i-iil <Liti" temperature" knob. Sjlj^JI <^j^ j-^P> J^ -Jjl- -H Sjl^^jj 
jjiijj JlK^ (iijjlUI ijl^^JI i^-j-i JJt iilaUl iijiJI *_a uj^ j" pH 7-0 itLJI ^^uLiiJI JjU -h ^ 
r l-=-'.~H ^^^LjUI JjL^JI ^i d^lAJI -_.ua I I ,^1 ,lUli "buffer" knob. f JLLJ! Lsr ^LU! JjU .11 
^^ia. iLsLJI ---IjU^ii j^ ."sensitivity" knob J..../..~ //^ ...I jail JjU Jl ^ij^ Jjt ,pH 4.0 

<___.£ pH ij-uLjS o^; - j *''j" - ^jLjUJj .^Li :<j_y) 1 : 1 J^*-* ^ <^J^ pH ■La.j-i lj-"^ ?-y '' J j^;l ^ ^ 

j— a prl jj-uLii __j^ ^. "J "^ ^11 jj-^aj ^_3 . v&l JS_iLj <Liii_a .~.1aU ^ -c-^jl 4j ^ILj" ^j^ <a_i_iIiA d ^ » ^ ^ 

^-l- JjU .^i ^j~pw ^..Ijai Jj...j'.j|il ij-LJI J^s M 0.01 CaCl2 J N 1 KC1 3 L>J!&\1\jl* 

LiLLj J1a f«J-ajl ^ys. *Qjl_iXajl OU^ILi-ajlj lAJa-ajl __j^ d .^ r.H d > J , -.11 ^1 yuLjl ^ys. _j ^> I ^ ^ H <JjL=»_o ^_3 
rWANA j'aU'^^i j\jlall - j*j,,,l<ll ^jUI ^^l^jkJI aJA^JJa^jjl jjLJI (>= J Jfj .ajj^^l 
.pH ju3 j-i tiljj jjjj (jl jjj-i j!j(i ■ " SLiaJ <lliLa <JCjl j-i Lulj-4 4iLiJI iijlJI ■*■!*' "* ILL:.. (_j£aj .4 

<liljjjl .-.I .jU'll . iljiWI t _ sr i-Lij <<iijl= oljIiJ djliiuJI ■ -Uallj pH jl(g -_■ JjiXj-J iLi^ J La. ^i .5 

U.a~. ti d a ijU ^ h , ^ * d^\l ,^.11 <S l sjaJ1 \l rt ^ I 

.(sLJ! :<j_h) 5 : 1 ji 2 : 1 Jj. ■■'■ ijilx^l j *jj ■ ^ H ^lj~ll ■ iyr -.I'.j^ll oiLl I jl .6 



39 



(EC) 4j£L^SJI MjJSUJI 2.5 

*i*' "* ^j ^.M ^1 . ..I . ijli iijLJI [jjjlijj .iijlJl [_a isljiJI i'j'^ M II r!lLaV I J-^jj (Jl i»j2J' ^=>.jLa ^?^ 
jjji (J La. Ji(_ki j - ' "■ - <''"'■ ^ -.1^1 . ... is^j' ("' /Z)jj <f LaJI :<jjj 5 : 1 jl 1:1 <i >...'> 11) f L»JI «_ais_jj 

aj_4 l JLo jj-ulljj .4 JjuLi-o <jjlll <Q_i£ j^aiJ LoJj^ *LajjLo si^l *_ujVl *"'j' ( 4_i>J ' U J ^ ) 1 ■ 1 d ' ' ' " 

<il3LlJI [j-uLi3 jl (j -■• -L' ■■* ■ ■•! ■ iuLi^^ill <J3LllLj i^jLaJI (JjjLjj Lai - j ■ ■ "° o3j J5L&. .-.I .-.l^i . .. J1 
. L> ^LU! IJA Cf J& /i/.^/J^rf/^j^v.W^ Kijrj r - - 7/ jj ' 3T j ^yj .conductivity bridge iuL^ill 

a " - 11 IjH j\jj f— jLajl j^iiiXi-iiAjl j »^ ^ j-u-^lj <3j ^>"' <l_j Ja tdLl* jl Lai 

<£i1jjj <JjlJI iaolLa (_jj-a ^j ^'' Ljjl jLlJC.1 (_ki j ~(j -II <jj_ii_a]1 oLuLlill iaj ia.jLa]1 j/"~ 

l j^j *u_!_uLio ( * ' "/ ^j "j ^ »n »^ jl ) db/ni z— A-ii y^*j *_i_iL^ j^iiiXi-iiA jj-uLul (jLii . J » ■ ^i ^ *n 
1 j_* jji j-aiiV 1 -*' ■ ■ idS/ni 4—2 ,j_u - ■» n jjii Lajj^ jjLjj ^ ■ ■•! ■ ■"■ H J ■ . — 1~. -H JQLt jl 1 -i^ ' J ■ ■ ~^ -■ -H 

.(Richards, 1954)i=.jLalJiajLLaJ1 jj.^.u -ii ^..,^-..,-11 

tjjjjl ol j ^^LlaJI ^jj CW AN A <Uala ,jj ijjj-all ^^LlaJI ^j 1- ■ .-1j LsLaLtl ia.jLa]1 JiiLj Laljj 
jj^j'" -JjH Jjilj-J jj jj £a < JLa. J£ (jk -V*^' ^'j^' ^L^l J<-Laj6V1<^.j.jJlLa]V Ljjl VI (ilaJ-JI 
•LljjJI Sj'jj (jt j ^1 "11 60 ■ -j'^ll [j-ijiJj . JjUj-uaJI ^j Jj'1 -j(j^1l <Lil3Ll]1 (JjjLjS Jt _>a1 ■ .11"H 

.(Richards, 1954) <LJ3LJI ^U jSI> (USD A Handbook 60) -L^VI 

.vacuum filtration system iplj^ £_>_>£; J ^ . a. . 
.conductivity bridge ipL^^UI <J3LJ1 o^Lii jL^. 

j^bj ^kliJI ^LJL ^ijUl <%jj ^Lj < LiLl .bucltner funnel ^i^ ^3 ^ Whatman No. 42 

.*Lulj^Jl i_j sHJl ^'^^ Ji-LJLi .3 
. j-iijj ^-^ t_5"^l 3 A ' ^ Ij ^l ^J ^ ^- .A Ail j j " ■ ^** «ilal .4 



40 



.<LijLt «_llLvIJ1 ajl^l l_^^_i <LaLaj HjIj «_lIi1 Jl <jSj aJ 1 j] .6 

-Jj u Jl ,ji conductivity celliJaLJI iJ^ujiail ^ ,J^50 l^ii^ijjjlj^l &\j$ j^L^' Jail .7 

Lik .(deci-Siemens per meter) -/^..'..j...^ ...^jl (mmhos/cm) -..../^j-jllx.-.L^ail J ? ...~ .1 
^1 ^LLyLiiia ^jij^^JI jL Lik .mmhos/cm Sj^j ^ (dS/m) Sj^j J,^~..,l j.a^, <g1 

.1 dS/m = 1 mmhos/cm 

<il3LilJ l f Ij3 u 1 "*.' ,1- J- '-^ 0.01 KC1 JjU - Ljiiuia EC Jj'l -j^ 11 <J3LJI jL^a. <3j ^ j°~-~ .3 

.i°25 5jl^4^jj jjt dS/m 1.413 Ujj3 



41 



Xjit Ilt ff j_*j 7 if +LX* * . *Vl ajLaJl _>* ^Jj J-° 4Aj^4j' <-*J---' J^'.jiU <__j__lS i L_£_I_. _>* FFdJ-^J ( — ' tA jlj" V 

_j_a%50 *- CWANA<Ualo uj3 _sj3--j <M^ _$-* ^ijj.tiiS'^jjJ^^ <£UJf *l±lLj1 <£UJf ^jJsLLJ! ^s 

.jidjl CaC0 3 -equivalent ^j^HJI ol^^_-I-_11 ^_l_LJ1 

_j_aj j j a ■ ■ <j a '' _>* ^-jJj-a OuAi 6 cJI OIjjj *__]' k_jM u j j-J' * ' ' '~"» f_£^jl_Jl prl <__jJ *_a ijLsJ'j_4 LaS 

.L-luLI^I cwana 
,jj Uijjjii J31 (jjtj < L-aji "active" CaCOg ilUUI ..jj,,,ii<ii oljjjji j.' 1 ''*' •'^j.'*'^ "^ u ~- ■ *ji^ 
jjj: ^jJI ^LlJI ^i L^lJ ^ ,ilJJ J\ jLutl ^k ."total" CaC0 3 iiKJI ^j^liJI oUj^£ jjja; 
JiiLs ^ ■■<-* jl . Luiy ^ Drouineau (1942) Jj3 ^ iL>_>k]1 aH ojjL J Ha ^...Vjail ^jLuAfl 

■~-' > > >- jjjjLlJ *_a JjLaLaJl jj-uLlill OM ~j » ■ ""^ '' oLjjjjS ■•*■' » » >-* J^L&jjl *Li=Ja_i_uJl <l -* 1 , , . * 11 , ,.1 , ,.' 
J^ii— aj L^_jyjlJ_a tiljj /*-*-*-* ^- J <aj->l \J1 AjJLJj-aJl OJl \Sjl *-a L^kLflj jjjjL-ul (jk jj-uLlill J-alajj .4_jjIJl 

%50 ^Jl^. JiuL. <Gjil ^jj^JKJI oU^^£J ^KJI ^iKJL <JUUI ^^^JUI cl:^ ijk L^ 

s-L-fiUaJl t*JjL_LU ifijjlj^ij lS"^ 1 -"-*-*)-* *Llll=J1 a J_4 ^jl <Lal J.iILL_u' j j_i-fiLlo ^£,Jjj .*UiSJl «l ^ ^a 1' ^^ tJJjij^ijj' 

.(r AX.), 1974 ) ijjJj-i-aJl J_LujSjjJ_l4 UJ A ^ ^ L h ^-^ ■ •'■<■ aJ^ jJ' i-ij'jJ' |j^-iiJ' a jjLa_o Jlxj aj ^j-°J ^C-Oo 
<ii_L-.il J.__. Lii_u rCJ-' <J_JLi__ | _j F _ii__3j C-Oo \VL *__a___ fJ-^ i_j s_Jl ^-Ji k_j_ij_ s_Jl jJu-i- 3-w^ 3 U^--*- 1 ^-a-i- 
_j^ ,ji_i_l__i | w J__i___L_ _jl ,_j__ >1_J ^4 jjij__jl <_j Ja La' ^ J 1 J ^ A ^J'J - ' LS~* ^ ^ ' ' ^ J ^>--'' («4! |_>---a--j' 

_j^ ^_^j__. ■ a ,^s\ ijjijj _jl | j H __i__Jl _>* lJ--.'j f__l__i ^Jl ,jH-a CLLj i-lljJ .CclC-O^ _>° ----■' J ^(SJ^ ^~° [J -15 



.CaCO 



'3 



d^kVI 



.hotplate ^j^o 
.burette L=A 



42 



.erlenmeyer flask jjLaJljl juJ J 
.volumetric pipette j *j — - i^sU 

iVl .(Ha)plaJI jjJSu^a^JjK^ .1 

<UlJ JjJa.JLa.jja1 - jUa ~ II J_JI ^ (%37, Sp.gT. 1 . 1 9) J^yJI e LJ! jjl^ L> Js^^ {y> Ja 82.8 ■ «^ 

.JaLaJI * LJLs _>Jj] ^11 - -■• -■ II Jj&i al < J_>A) 

iVl ,(NaOH) ^j^uaJI Cal^U J>la.a .o 

,>LJI f UL ^a^JI ^Jl 

[C 6 H 4 COOC(C 6 H 4 -4-OH)2] jJlSi J^ui JJj .£ 

.(^1 Jj^) J^lijl J* 100 Jt^tij JjiJ Jj1j<>^ °- 5 v^ 

[4-NaOS0 2 C 6 H 4 N: NC 6 H 4 /-4-N(CH 3 ) 2 ] Jjixdl ^JI&jj JJj .j 

jl~a ~H oLaJI ,jjs Jj 100 u i L-{,'t"'^u ^U' Jfl^o- 4 j. ■ 1 tJ ^' 

%95 ,(C 2 H 5 OH) J>illil .J 
ATI ,(Na 2 C0 3 ) pjjj^uaJI dJjjjS J^laj .j 

.JaLaJI o LJLs _>Jj] ^11 - -■• -■ II J-aSlj -jl"° -II * LaJI a J..'/.V// -j.j ij. .^1! ,-J '.j^j< ^~ I 53 ^j jl 

.Jjs250 <i- ■ ■• jjLajJjl J^jjJjji fia 0. 15) Lul jj» <jLa. <i_)j £■ 1 jjj .1 

j *J"? "* j * ""^ ~ iLLujj JuJ J -" lPI -^ ^ ^LaJI j aJS ;jAn^.*\ Jj1~- - ^ J^ 10 . a . ^.1 .2 
■ J _tt Jui^' ^J.^°60-50s J l_ > a.ia.jJ tJ k4Ji-L JJ j1 ,Jj1JI JIjL JjjjjJI d^l ^ ^jj^JI d_^ .3 

J 4J-»S JjJj (jja ol_>l=3 3—2 . i.. J.1 aj" <<a.jjjs <j1 jJajjjl Lajilxjjji _>LLaJI J-JI ,jjs Jj 100—50 tJuil .4 

.R.sJ^aJI 



43 



:<j_>UI ^ a^jujjJISJI CaLi^jjSJ i>jU 



|1 J.,, .Ml 



100 
(13 ) % CaC0 3 = [(10 x %c/ ) - (R x % aC ,^7 x 0.05 x 



FT/ 



.HC1 Jjl^. a <LljI laj = ^HCl tj' '"*'' 

■ (J-a) sje^ 1 -^' lt* M-*^""!' NaOH JjU - -^- = R 

.NaOH JjL, c itaUii = ^j^aOH 



iVl .(HC^plaJlj^JSL^iita. .1 



: ^ 



HCli^Ui: 



(14) N HCl 



10 x %a 2 co 5 

v HCl 



.Na 2 C0 3 JjL^i^Ui: = N Na 2 C0 3 



44 



iVl .(NaOH) j*^jj^taJI olfb.2 

ijljjj [ r& ' $3 ' -^ fia-ij ajl i <G_LaUaj ^ i a ajl p La-// ij< 13 ^j =3 a a ^JjL^-a ^y* J^ 10 d i al a]1 d U1 ,.j. ■ ■ ^ ■ ■*' 
a.j->Jj-u£ZJ! lTj/p rt Uj a d ' ' 'J s Uj ^ ^*^ Q ^w^ 1 ' 1 ^w> O^ O ilialj i a ■ -^l fl J^ 100 <a_i_u yjLaiJjl 



: ^ 



NaOH i^Uii 



(15) ^JVaOtf : 



;o x n hci 



V NaOH 



.NaOH JjU „ Jj-iu,-. = Nj^ a ofj \,j\ £ 
.HC1 JjU = i^Uii = A^ c / 



%50 ^.k VJ i]l .ljl^l<UL^d^JCaCO 3 ^^0.5^ l _ J . ; ;a^iV 1 HC1 <> J-* 10 ^1 -2 
.Js20j1 15<iU=l l _ i ^<JUJI ai^^j.^^o- 1 -^ 1 HCl^ J^IO JlULj^j1CaC0 3( > 

oLjjS_a ^j ^* i J_l5 (2>° ' ^ ^J ^ a a f fl~ i m Jl2 t ol-JJJ>Sjl <jl J^l ^j a a^a II j <j ylljl ^j±s J^L&ljl aIj Lauil^ .3 

' ~<r al LgaJl «_l!iI Jl a yjljLoj ijia ajl « i '"-v > ~ r -^ i ' y II 'lI^Jj .*Liju a yo ^j ^ a a 11 j v=»-1j ,AJa-ajl 

*LaJill ^^>^ *^ J 'j 0-3^ Jji a yilj-all *Lali^XJ • fll bajl «_l!iI Jl ^1 <ajl_i <J_a£j_iij aJjuLa-j <jS-aj (J^alll ylij ^jl 

.CaC03 (^jl^-J iJaUl 

jjji tilJjJj - J^I'Cj^. V J^ ^j~- II <i ' i i &£ <^J^ .-.I '-j^j ^j a - -■ II (^jjj .-.M £ I a* II » i ~^ jl iVl ^^ ~- V .4 

,L*jl_^l ■ -lt^ I jl i iAiuxujJl5L!l ^Li >Ja iLLijjj ^ a. »~. II . ajjU-all ^Ij^L ? I_>^-I (ji^ LaS ioLjjjjiJI 

.^UJI oSjJI (ji - 1,1^*.. -VI SjjU^^idJj «_aj 



45 



4j£l£*JI £jLJI 4.5 

^ ^OAf) Lj^JuJ! SjLJ! jjJjS ^ .L^Ujia £,j^" ,- ■ ■■~" : L^ synthesis ■ -j^'^j decompositions 
,_> j j jaJ <soil aggregation i > i// 1 _i^ T i^J (J i (■ ■ -■_■ -j IjJbt^J^ VI -ij^.-vJ- .^.lj~~ .-.LX.d .ym 
moisture -L^iyij Jibi^yi ^nutrient reserve and its availability LfijJjj <JIJ*JI j^L*J! 

.biological activity ^jJj^Jt ALLdtj ^retention 
jLa_uJ1 ol j^jjlJIji peat >.^ j<.t. 1^. i^iil jjLJI ^jj^-JI j \j^6^(*"^)i£j Ajb ^ uj-u^ ^j^^? 

iwi vll' f£.jIL=Jij \J J^ ' ■— J .>-^' U^ 3 - 1 (_e-^ *^ .>*' (■£' ■— 'L^ [Jj fiJj SJ JjjliJI i^IaLLajl ^J IT1UCK **'j ^ '' 

i^IaLLajl ^1 Laj-^ u sill /£jij ^_Li. ^J ,<jjjiL a Ji_o /o4-3 ^^ S-"' 'j'^ 2 ^' *U_lJa-aj' i^IaLLajl ^1 * *Li£l j\]l 

jjJjJ-sJI oLjj^>^ Jjls— u f Li-jj/aJ-i-ii^l SjJj-JI <£jj)aj LflcLa-jJ ajj *J f Jll\ *Lu^J1 jv'a" la-^V 

^j^^^^^^I^j^J^ 1 ^^ 1947;FAO ? 1974)^^^ 

fjl [j-til Clil [c^* <OjU J^l^ ilj.iILi_Ljl_i j 'j'^ '' ajLajl ^y* d » j ^ d > , ,.\ 11 * > >U Ji_iLj oljI-Lljl lJ^=Ji A-t 

,ijjli onijl j^mMI ajjt jJljJI (jij .(jj^uixJI (j^jjSJI jjj %58 (^Jt (jJ^jaj iL^*>uixJI SjL&JI 
(jt > _>jJtJJ 1.334 aii^Li l^jj^jjl (JujjSJ^j (jg^uafc u^J^ J^ 1 l^ j^LtJ' -Ojj o' J-^^j 

, J_JLi_-ajl j > . ^*~. ^j ■ -~- ■ "i oLi^aLoj d *^ ' ^ j olj^l 
.titration apparatus (burette) J-U ■■■ 

Nl ( (K 2 Cr 2 7 ) ^^xluIj^jJI oUjjS (^iIj J^Li-a .1 

o 

. jiUVI d* ~<^ . j^Uj^idi^i^lj) ^silica gel) 
46 



^>JI (98 %, sp. gr. 1.84) ,(H 2 S0 4 )cu^iJI ^A^.o 
M0.5 ( [(NH 4 >2S0 4 .FeS0 4 .6H 2 0] ^^Vlj jjJyJ^JI CiQjjjS Jj K ^ .J 

(C 6 H 5 ) 2 NH tjjj JoojS^IjJJj .JS 

JaaJI ^Ajjis 

.^500 i^uj _>1aj u-Jii (ji (ju0.15) LuljjtiaL^ij^ ?■ 1 jj .1 
^j ^* a (2jji Jji 20 i » i a 1 -■! i aU Laj -■* i "• ?V 1 a 4Aujtj ajJI oLj ajS /-jLi Jj1~- - ^^ J-a 10 ■ » ■ ■*» 1 .2 

■ i^Ll-ajl 77 VaJ l.J_u ^j uT-SJl tij si u (3-°J <*L^.jiJ-a <jl^Ja_i_ul LaJ.iILi_LiA lS S&JI CXJ sJ&JI 

.<Sj3j 30 aJ-J^jJa-aJI d_^l .3 

Laj^'mn jSjaJI j^iiuj^idl (j^iiLa, (>i Jj 10 ^Jll^.1 ^ tjlalaJI *LaJI (>= J^ 200 ^1 ji ^Jl^.1 .4 

. j^j-J gjj-JI ^_h'j ^dispenser , ■- . -H ^^i^Lj^l jL^. 

jl (j ~ (_ki [jjjliJI » i a aj - i ..it-.l*ii - ■ . i . A a , a , ^1 ^jjtil JjjjiS (_£lj J-Jj ^.a <jaij 15 — 10 . a . J. 1 .5 



l (;*- '*i j-iJI <l_j^iaJI ^j "»'' Li^La f-^'j <ij_AJ1 I^La JaJU. - n * m ^ ^ -j*^- 1 (blank ^j *i ■ *■ j ■ ■-■- .7 

:<jjlJI ^i 3 jj uaxJI SjLaU ijjj-aJI <±j_ui]1 




47 



0.3*M*[V sampk -V blank } 

(17) = (w/w) j^XjJ! tfju^ktJt gjj.j£Jl % 

Wt 



(18) 1-334 * j^XjJt tfjtJeJt ^jijXJt % = (w/w) ^1 tfj^xJI ^jjySJI % 




(Ja) jjtLiJI 'je^ j\j^-l' (Vi^J-^'j jj^*^' ^^d^ Jjl 3 -* fe^- = ^blank 
( >_U) <JJ»J' 'je^ j\j^-" (Vi^J-^'j jj^*^' ^^D^ Ji^ 3 -* fe^- = ^sample 

(£ ) Lu'jjt iaLJI <j_>UI jjjj = FT/ 

Oj^J^^uJ^jM'^ju!^' 3 x 10" 3 x 100 = 0.3 

.a^ALutj^jJI oLajj£ j-JLj JjU n^ J^ 10 ^ jSsl iaLJs)/ ia.Ls.dLut 
5jUJIj rOC (JSJI ^^jl!I (j^jjSJI ^L^ ^ ^-, ^'..-H 1.724 j 1.344 ^LJI jl .2 

JjU ,11 (Ag 2 S0 4 ) 2j261\ otjj^S <UL^L jjjjllll JiU <HjJ ,j£*y -^ ^^ ( Fe++ ) 



48 



(CEC) oLjjjuISII MjJjLjjJI kudl 5.5 

(Mg ) ijjjjii-JI j (Ca ) ..jj,,,il<ilj (Na ) -jj ^"-ilj (K ) -jj-^j;!! J^ ^ L$j Ula'-Vlj 

j ■ ^1 ''- II j 1 j ■ ^1 ''- 1 1 ^ -' lillil .<Lujj^ <LiLa£i oLjj-ijI^JI JjLij (jj ii-ia. .«JI ... (NH4 1 ijjjjjsilj 

JaJ ^,j L$3!lU=1 o^f lP^^J leaching ^Li^jVI <jL^ JILa. • j'"~ J jjj <^>il' ^ Jai=Ji J <jjI jill 

cation exchange capacity oUj-uKll <_ihLsU1 J- . -H ^ ^j . ~- 11 oL^-ill jju LiJ -*■■■* L£ 

.. ,,,-^j^ii , ,,11 1\~. .-.ii^ii .~. 1 ^. 1 ^ . 1 .,,.a ji jj .is^pjipH * . J.J.- . j~. J ,i.rF.r J ':h^f m , Ai(rF.r) 

* * - 
.<jjUI pH i^jj^^k jjj*j LjjLjIo I ....a jl (^Aa.^ ^permanent aJj *jU&j 

^jjj"*^' ^-y-^' =■ I; ■"! J-uLj 1 -i~- - jlj (Rhoades, 1982) CEC ,'j,'~-~i s^ljia z^j^ \3jk ^Lia 

ujjSI^II (ilJ j jaj J,';*'-jj excess cation jjljjJI ujj^' J-^i-> Jl jj ^ <(NH4 + ) index cation ^j-JI 

.(Richards, 1954)^1^1 ^,-U~..,Jl .j.t-j-ii jj^^' ^Ujj (Na ) _^1 jjjjjKj ,^-0^1^11 jA)-^ 

d -* I' j d » ■ .'K 11 u yljl ^_i ~j > ■ "I'N I' ^.a a on <U*a^ ^jLjJlIJ I Ja: <JJa_o lJlV 3 Oli-jl JjIj 

.(FAO, 1990; Rhoades andPolemio, 1977) 
(milhequivalentsper 100 g soil) <>ji ^\jL 100/ ^iliaJJ-JL ^bj^KLIiJjLU/Zi^J! ^ J^ 
:(S.I. unit) iJjjJI lj-iuLLJI ^^uo. [cmol (+)/kg soil] hji Jj£jL£/( y +) j^, ~~\ . ..ti . £,j^j ji^jl 
.[4jjj »lji^LS/(+) J^ajjujj = <Lijj *l^ 100/ ^il^ajdlj] 1 3 ,,A\ ^ ijJLjSaJI ^.l^^VI jjji 
<aL_>JI >-ijH i i , A.i^'i. l(S*~j°,jj^' : '' , -j- '<j_h i 1 '^ 100/^iliajlia 100 ^1 1 (^jjCEC ij3 rjljUj 

.1:1 Jj-.jUI I ^ k\, .11 j^^j ^ijVl CEC 

.flame photometer ■ -(jiii. ^jjUH JjU-ii jL^ 

.mechanical shaker, reciprocating ^ aaji ^L^^i ^ j jL^. 

.centrifuge Jajyil /^ ^000 J,>- -■ -jj^j" 'j u j'i? 

.conical centrifuge tubes Ja 50 <i^ (£j£j* AjL ^pli 

A^ 1 ( (NaOAc) ^j^usJI C:*>Ui JjK ^ . I 
(> J^950 JI Ji ^(CH 3 COONa3H 2 0)^^^>.^^ J MJjM^^Jii ( j- a £. 136 v j1 • 



49 



* LJL JlA ^1 - -■• -■ 11 JjSIj , ajjjj-i^dl i^ilfia jl iiLLLJ! L> Js^^. iaLi^j 8.2 ^Jl pH "U-j-i Jj^ • 

%95 ( (C 2 H 5 OH)^l J^i .0 

JV 1 <(NH 4 OAc) ftjhU^tVl £>*^ JjN* .£ 
68 .JuJ ^,>lji -i-ii^- J-8nn^ii (rw 3 roow) j^,, // ,»/,/.; / /^,, :,- J- 57. ° ^ • 

*LJL jlJ ^1 - ~ - II JjSIj ^juJjmiS'/ t^tta jl aLLsJ! <_>^ii=. iaL-iL^ 7.0 ^1 pH <^.jj Jl^ • 

(*luL£UI fi\ J^la.a .J 
j_>j ii ioL^Lu 3 ijjJ i°105 ajl^iijjJjjjULs^NaCl) ^.jjjj^sJI jJjjK ^ £■ 5 Hj- ■ »°~ • 

ji"» -II * LJL _>XJ ^1 - -■• -■ II J-aSj -ji"° -II sLaJI j «' "-- ~H AjjjjjuaJt jjt^jK (ya I 2.5418 ^jjl • 

(,- ^ w^^ -) Na (^jjj 1 - 11 0-* '>=-) PP 111 1000 JjU ~H IJA^j^j 
<> J-20 ,15 JO ,8 ,6 ,4 ,2^ftik ^LK^SV^^^-L^LiJI JJL^JI <> <LJ^ ^^- " 

t^js. ^Ja 25j JV 1 Ajjjj_a2l OjLi. iJjli_o <lLi-ij_j ^_ji_£j *^ -^ J^ 100 <JLj_u i3jjJ ^J] i2l (J^la—a 

200 ,150 ,100 ,80 ,60 ,40 ,20^^ JJL^JI ai^^j^ .(^i^J/^S^/ J J A- a )LiCl JjL^ 

.(ppm 25) Li CI ^3-^UI ^..jm JjU . j< -ij~-i ^ ,Nappm 

(£j£.j* ^J= v^ i^l y ^ ^% (H^ 1 ^"^ ^O t 6 ^ (f ,, J aJ ' ^^ ^ ik^ji* <j_^) j_ 4 jj. 1 
jjj ^ JV 1 (plaJI oLIj^ (jjMj) a^jj^usJI c&Li Jjl^-a (j-* J^ 33 .Juil ^ ,J^ 40 i^ 

.[AJL3J ruu^ aj-a] T jj ,i_j q-i-ijl 

. L^a^l £ cju~..,jl jj3 LU; ,jiLJI JSLJ .-L^ . USIj supernatant liquid ^UaJI JiLJI 

Jjj ^ ,%95 ( J^JUjI) (*iijl J^^5 (j-* J^ 33 tJuil ^ .^^iUaJI J^L-JI ^jLua sjj Ji ^ i^ys. 

^ -^ [Cj^jt * I' ^ v«J' j' ^ ^ J" 1 ' ^ 'J ^^' /^-^J l_j^j_ijj 1 ^^ a Jl,J_i_iJl /tijl ,i3-iL3j [jji-ai. a J-aJ r 1 j|j ,l_j^j_ijj 1 

■ ^ ■ ** A-i ^J-°J ^-*'j LS^^ 1 ^ JjL_iJl «_i_b£ij 

50 



j ^ J / L> ^l a A^j J l fa 400 <> J3l <UIU1 <L^J j^ ^1^1 J^LJJ (EC) <^L>^JI <J3U1 uj£ 

.(fiS/cm) 
<iV 1 a ajj uVI Caiti Jjl^- - ,jj Jj 33 iiLiiJj j * ''j- 11 ^ ^j"-.' -N (Na ) ,-jj ij-^aJI ^ ^j "«'■ ■•! .5 

. lijl j (jiLkJ' JjI mil r .''".' tj*" 

.(i^uji jju^ji jjSi^j oUijiJi 

lj^ULi (jSi»bJI JjlL^jJI jL^<1=Lujj emission ^LikJI &\ f \ja ILj^jUI ^-.U'....) .-■!•. »il ^ .8 

. ( jitajiLi) ran 767 <^.j^ JjL j jt Flame Photometer 



:<j_>UI ^ oLi^jjtSU 4jJjLwJI <j«-lJ 



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Wt 1000 



.(£■ ) LuljA <iLJI <jjUI jjjj = IT 7 / 

jSSl Rhoades and Polemio ( 1 977) iL^k _>^ .jV..a.. j^^ ^ <L>_>kJI ai^ <ulki; L^ ii^l ^ 

.zeolite o-Jj-TjJIj -^j-;? 11 <oUjjjUI LS k, i>jUJI ^.jilJ J^.-Mi- h£L* 



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jjuu^JI 6.5 

d au\ *I1 .^.' j >~^ ~ fj^A-i ^_£ <Li*ubl * l '' l ^^ ■ ■ ■ ' '^ » ^JblJ d "* "I ^laLLjl ^_£ d~ > **1 

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ijj^^ lL>^'j ^ij^' a ^ j6 o!lUii^ (_yk ^lUaifl o^fj -acetone jj'j—^i Jj 1 - - <1=Lujj 
.(FAO, 1990)<L^^JI VJ UI J^FAO i^^i (Sayeghe/ a/., 1978) 

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djjii 1.6 

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.IAjA\ JiUI <^a.j (> L^ ^ jjjl ^ N fertilizer 
inorganic ^j .a^VH 1 3 •. „ j organic ^^JuJ! L$ia ,ijjj£; JK.t.I . <jjUI ^ ojjVl j^-jp 
^ J j . ..< ...1 jjji; jii ■ , j^j*^ ^''A'*** 'L'j'^.'^-J ^-^ Lj^ 1 Cy 1 tjJlill (j-s <jj£jJ1 <£LsL_iJI jk.t.vi 

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.(j^iliiiVI (jJJ total soil N ^^KJI ^jzi\ ojjlj jj ■ ~- n 

OjjXJIj ((NOg") oljXJIj <(NH4 ) ijjijjVl JK.r.1 ^aiyjjl ■'■jj^-^j'"''^ ti J<.v.ll .-ftjtjj 
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L^V ,hjd ■-■' J ;- - ^i Wjj N0 3 -N ^IjXJIj NH 4 -N ^iLiij^l ^jj^' tjJi^ l^^ 
^ ojjI LiU <oLiUI I -j "-~~j (jjilJI ojjVl M < ■ - Lutj , mineralization ^jjuUI iiLt ^j^ ji ■ -<-j 
ojjl ixiis j/-*ii jja. l^jj Lia-i ^jUI ^ nitrate-N ^IjXJI ^jj^' ^j'- - J CWANA <ikia 
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d 1 d a1~-k ^11 ijjj^aJI JK.T.VIjl OjjVl oLuj^-jji^ IjLaJtl OjjVl Jjl^-~ 
■ ■ t^j '' i_L-^Jl *LiLa^ uiAj * ' " ' \J J^ |V| ^ ^ J ' ^^ '' JS_iIJM '^'1 <_i yjjl Ojjl J^-lIi [j-uLii Lo^-a^j 

ojjiU Jjj ■ "- 'I j±L Jli^i.^1 ijli jjSjj .SjjiuJI kjeldahl JaIjK <aj_>1= -i,^'...!. wet digestion 
JjU ~- <j_>iJI ^^.M ^'■■■1 ijLt jaj distillation jjUa- il <!_>_>!= J,^'...l . (NH4 + +N03"+N02") 
iiLjjjjj^jj&l ,j ■■>-- <ij_>kj NO3-N , ' j, ' -■ * d)iaj -jji"»*il ^*jl ~^ ^1 4iLJj)/Lij .Af 2 KC1 

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kjeldahl <LSujku OjjVI jJJSj 1.1.6 

jij-JI H2SO4 ^ijjUl - ■ Af. j| .distillation jJ=2Ul j digestion f^JsfJl Lf lAj&, <i->_>kJI aj^ J^^ 
j j ■ ^- 11 ojjVl ,jj Jj^-'H • j^ ■■ *ij jjy*-" 'j'^ 1 - ^-j^ t^^ catalyst mixture j°- - t~jU j^^jj 
Jjk-JI ^ ^Liij^^l ojjVl jji^ ^ (>j .ammonium-N ^Liij^^l ojjVl ^J organic-N 
(excess NaOH^) -jj ^j"H oULa (jj [j^lUI ^j.,*^*.... ( ^jliJI jjUa* 11 jji ^ iLLujj .*j ■"{ "^ 

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(>j (saturated H3BO3) £_lAJI <±1jjjJ 1^=-^ ^ j u °~ ti JiLJI ^-^ ^ .pH <^.jj ji^] 

5.0 = pH L*.jA (jjl (dilute H2SO4) ■ Hi -H O-^-lUI ,jAa-a. JL,,.1 J; <GjjU_i. jLG jjj 

.(Bremner andMulvaney, 1982) 

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(Hach Company, 1992) Cjj}V' *jJJ -5 j»3j JSJiJI 



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^^--ji reduced iron ^-j^ jjj^JI oIlU^ jiLa. ^ - -i^n jjt ^I^JiJI ojjVl jj^ o^ej 

.((jJLUI - ■■■ail Jiil) JjtljK^ij^^Lujj salicylic acid ^jL^JLJI 

.block-digester -~* jL^. 

.distillation unit jj u °~ il gj^j jL^ 

.automatic titratorpH jL^^I Jj-^=j-* ^^iyUj^l ij->U_a jL$^. 

.vortex tube stirrer ^Ijj j ^^Ul jViU. jL^. 

w/w 100:10:1 iUuiiJI catalyst mixture (K2S0 4 -CuS0 4 .5H20-Se)^i^jiajli. .1 

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d-u-ijLaj^-.-^aJ .- JJ -. ~il jij^ji j^t**^ porcelain pestle and mortar jjU^gjjJI 

,iUlid-,,..M . Ji (Se) ..jj'.jl...il J^ jl .v.'.-...l ^dJajaJI iil j_a , (^ 0.250) mesh-60 

,£ydl (%98 ,sp.gr. 1.84) ,(H 2 S0 4 )c*j^£JI ^A^.o 
A^ 10 ,(NaOH)^j^u2JI CiIpUJjN*.^ 

. CLJ 5 <a_i_u ^aii ijijjj ^Jl ^{'jj' ' '> ^j ^~ ^ ^.a £ 500 ■ ^ ■ -*■■' • 

JJJI Jl > di^l • 

■lt 1 ^' JuJ jJ ' J^ ( j i f' , ^ H 3 B0 3 ("■' J^' <_^ J ^"' ->y o 1 v^ " 
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A^ 0.01 ( (H 2 S04) CujjSJI o^ua. JjN* .j 

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slj ^J a 1-aJ.aJLi-Lij prl jl fl a La i 1 al -^J *^ a J^ ^_£ ^j'^j ajl ■•*■' J-iaJJ j >Ua~ 11 (Lilju ej_l]l J_l5 .7 

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. lJ ola— aJl «Ja_i_u fj_ul sJl <Li3 fj_i±ajLj *a-i 

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■ i_Ua.aJI ^i u>^4 372 - 2 



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ia-jjl a jjt (Jl - ■ ^ (j II jl (j 7 J "" .<Luiii . . A. j II ujjil (Jl L^jjlil ^ -■■*■■ i^. ■ - I l^*'-l ■ f- Lajftfl 1-iJj -20 

.<Sj3j40 Liu 

o 
.i 240 ajl_>2jl <^.jJ Jj-^= Jl LiAJ^LuaJ-JfLJI <Jlj)f jLJill d jl «r ^i J ,-,,,l .21 

. jk O 380jia.Sjl_ > =Jli ? .jJ t ijlj ,^U3^I jtl ^LJI <Jljl ^ .22 

. i 380 ajl^j^JI <a.jj jjt ol^Li-u4 ij-J - ■ ■*»{ II ■ j ~~ ■ "lj - - ■ ■*» (j II jl (j 7 l<* aj^LII ^*j3jJ' t~> ■ ■*- 1 .23 

<1=Lujj Ij^r jj=Ij 'jkiSlaJI pLlJI ,jj J^ 50 (_Jlj^- ■ »■ ^ -- ■"{ H jl 3 7 1^ ,jj ^jjjUsI *JjI .24 

<1=Lujj i>_>i" W^!^ ■ ■ "l'-^l (_i *i ' ■ ■ 'j* - <LiLa jlj-a * Lii ilUt ,-ij .[jljjbill ■ ■ ■ >l *>V I JalLa. jl (j 7 

.Jji250 - -■• ^ II *- jbfl^l 1 pUJI . a. j>i ijj^jjJI jju .25 

dUI , ,.j ■. .^. , ,.' u ^^j ^ J-alS (ji_ilu ^jbjLus r; \a **>■*> -^ * ■ -** ^ II l_j^j_ijI r 1 j - j >Ua*t 11 (Lil^au ^jjl J_i*a . 1 



64 



. Ja 250 <a_i_u k >Ua~ I' ijTj j ^_a ' fl * ■ -^ j «_j VaJl ^^ J-* 50 <Ll^LJI 
^jjjjl 0-* <jj1J=-JI djXilj .NaOH & ajj lu^JI oIpLj ^ a^jlj <j-ai *_a -j"^ -H KJ*^' ->^ '^ 
.^IjUl Jt JV 10 NaOH <> J* 50 J\ J* 25 JU, i^ J* 100 J J* 50 v - ...II -^.^.^ -11 

: ll~ll< ^jUa'll .-.Ll .r ^j-^" 1 .3 
dish jj^nll ^Ja ^ jbaaJI *LaJI ^ J^ 1 j *ju!wJI djj^jJI u^wui, Jjla_a ^ J-a 1 j-^i • 
j^i ^ condenser tip . aVfJl ^jjil ,jjj ■-■-' j^uil ^_^ ^ , ja 100 <i^ evaporating 

^jUJl ^La^lH Jj^j.i^H ...Jw*lV\j ^jjjl^jl^a.^1 ATIO NaOH ^<Il1j-Jl <-^J1 «jL«J a_l-s • 
*LsLa£. 1 Jjl pj i ClaiTlp ^^**' ^ kal A«lUI , mj * j tUal ll a,_Li.j ^Jl ijj'-^ ■*'' *-a j *Ua~ ll ] \j^ J a jjIiLlo J-l-s * 

[j-ulj J ' "**' A-t <a JajLaJI ajLaJl {jjz J_a 35 ^Jl^_a. * — ■ ajj Lajj£ ^iAjLSj 4 uiAj -j >Ua~ 11 d >1 *r i fi^jl • 

jj\'~H J.'^.j 1 ! J U °" ti - 1 - ti Q" Jljla Jj-<" **< 



Jl 



a Cli ^jl Lak -d ^j ■ ^fl *'' ajLajl {jjz ^ j » ^ -J ^ -* 1 *M ^^ ■ "' Jj£ ^J * ajLajl j&^la >i.ULi ZaL& 
jl-» - II Jjl~- -II ,jj a_>J=3 Jjl jtjfl^ i*' *' - Jl ja.V1 Ji (_i lJ-jLSj 4 JjLilij VI uaj j ■!-'* II 

- (JVI SjjlxaJI jlg^ UiiiuiaiVO.01 H2SO4 JjL^j5.0 pH ^.jj^l i_>LLJI SjLJI jpk • 

.Titrator Auto 

[j-Jjj ^teflon ^jji » »~ii ■ ^ ~n . . ■ ■ u.1 *« ~il ,>\ .j^. *il . .i,;i J . ..rl ^ajjIi-JI ^ - 1 (j*'-^i jju * 

. JjjjAJI J, Ja ^1 d_>Xiii-JI ■ -Uallj .J-.U , ,,ll 
1^ <j^ILi_-ajl j >Ua^t 11 i3jlj J J "^ uiAj tdJ^j - d an^ ^11 j >Ua^t 11 .^.1\ >r ^_u -j >Ua*t 11 ajj^j j >^ ^ ■ ■ ^ ^ • 
sjij ^Jl Ja 100 <a_i_u f' jU j >Ua~^ ijjij J J-i-a : ^Jj Lai *j » ^j . ^-* 11 oULa Jj'^- ^J j ^j "^ j *'' d ^ »* '' 
■ a'i<.ll ^1 iajlUI sLlJI ^Aij t-ftjjl -■ a'i<.ll ^j .-.^* Jj 100 <a-LU ?■ jli (jjjli *_i^. .jJaSUI 

.iiiD90 Sj-J _>ij ^ (jjj , (condenser j acket . a^.il ^iU^aLiJI ^jj-^a) 
jjtlj^i.) blanks ^jj^Lij standards ^j...lja jjijU . Jt jjUa- iJjt Ji jj*^~ J ^jaj • 



65 



LiiJI EDTA jl aJ1^\ ^ iijUl Sy..\\\ 



r~ 



(V-B) xJVxi?x 186.1 * WO 
(26) % Recovery = 



Wtj x 1000 



I 



: 4jjjJI fjS Csj j*MJ i;jU' 



il J.,, .Ml 



(27) %JV= 

wt 2 x 7000 



.H 2 S0 4 JjL^i^Uii = JV 

. j tUalll . i j ^ 1 ^ ll a^a^aJl <jJJJ ** A J ■ A ^ ^ 1' <j_iaJJ re-l^J' a^a^aJ' ^Li *Lllxl±)1 — it 

(^)EDTAojj = ^i 

( £ ) Lu'jjt iaLJI <j_>UI jjjj = FF/^ 

.EDTAijU ^KJI^^JI = 186.1 



66 



(jJjJLaJI OjjVI 3.1.6 



*/ ~. .Nl j -jU ^r- A \ i J 1 ^< ., . J '.1 VI lOjjVI .-.M ^1 a'/JU *l 'I jpll 

, <jj//j volatilization j^LkU! {$1=. '.i^^a ^J^i^J^\ ^ avail able -N ^LUI ^jj^' i 1 "'-^ O^e 
^j .leaching ^Liuj^l ^anaerobic de-nitrification ZJIj^yj! UijjLLl! ,-- ' <^jHfl 3^j^ C^ 
ijjw*!...."^ L$_jj^ positive (+) charge i-i^JI <i^JJI jV ^j^l ^ NH4 ^ijj V -Jj-j^uii JljaAfl 
.humus particles JU'.Jl J^.j . a, 11 gjLJI olir^j ^JaJI —^ ■ ■■< negative (-) charge <_JL_JI J'.- .v. 11 

LiLJI .-.la^uil ^mobile _>^JI NO3" jiii^j «_ii.j,j <jjUI * U=3_>j^ ^-^je cs ^' "La-lLi -^LUI ojjVl 

.jjlj J^jlLs I*, IJ-....7 . 7. 7tl Jj2i II i,ij,i .til 

jJIj^<G£ gii; L^ (methemoglobinemia) Jiaij^a JiLi^ <k^^ (ppm 10 ^ J^)^yui\ aLi^ 

■ JuJ 

MgO J,^'...l . ^ammonia (NH3) Luj^Vl jLi^ jj u °~- NO2" oej^J' JJ <iL^L> NO3" ol_>xJI 
(Bremner and Keeney, 1965) jj (> Alloy Devarda's Ijjliuj 3kdij NH4 jj ^ JjaUl 

■ '^ ~H H2SO4 JjU ~- 5.0 pH (jjl jjL^ j j_ui-JI H3BO3 j^^ ^i^La.ll SjLJI ^~ r ~ -NOg" 

+ " t J 

a j ~-~ ~il ^£ jlUjj .tjjjJI (ji NO9" 1NO-1" <NH4 ,jj J ■->-,' -II j iLjuJI jk.t.vi <ij^kJI ajjt jLiijj 

.(Keeney andNelson, 1982; Buresh, etal., 19S2) LS Jj J ^J! ^jj9l ^J J&J&\ aijJ^iSlI 

M2 ,(KC1) ^^xujLj^jJI jliIjjJSJjK ^ .1 

ijJ ^ O 700-600 Sjl_>a. <^.jj j:^ muffle furnace ij^^-JI ^ JjaUl ^jJi^J! j^^sf ^L^ 



67 



(50 Cu: 45 Al: 5Zn) Ijjlijj 3kdi .£ 

j^£. ~" -H jjjj= U*-* (3^; ^j- 1 lPI ^-JjtLjjJI <LLl ball mill o1_>£J1 (^i^ jj*^-~ <i^=>.LL ^ ^ tJ 
<GUii _>ka J^Jls ^ jjj-JI I j '-< -j %75 J&l ,_^J (j" 0.150) mesh 100 <oUii _>J=3 jLia 

.( r 0.050)mesh300 

iVO.Ol ( (C 4 H n N0 3 ) Tris J>L^ . JS 
iVO.Ol <(H 2 SQ4) Cu^l pima, Jj K * .j 

(^LuL^JI f$\ J>L*-3 . j 

(KNOg) f.j^i2jJ! &IjZj ^(NH^^SO^ ijuJjwSv L^iL^-iS"^ ijiJI Jj'.ij.jQi ajLJI ■ »^ • 

.jilt)?! J -^ - ^7! 7 Ju° ^a-lj -■ "-- -i! ■ j_>j .^jvl ... ijjj i°100 sjl_ > ^.i^.jJ Lf k jj_>iJLi 
J,j jj ^1 Jail -jl"° ~H oLaJI ^ ^j^tijdl &ljlip 8. 6624 jij^jwiVL^iL^-iS"^ £ 5.6605 ^jjl • 

9 1.2 (tf-1^ jCS*'"* * Jj 1 ^ * '' Ijjt . JajLaJl eLaJLi * -* ^ '' ^Jl J-ailj JJ_ii r; \a\ < CLiJ <a_i_u *^ -* 

.(fbfUfii^-) jiJH ^N0 3 -N j. 1.2 j ,NH 4 -N 

i^luk ^Vi jji- - ^ L^-^ *^j u - j 1 "- * 

*V/ Jjl^-a) Ml fj^tjj-JI ,ljljjK Jjl~ - 4iLiJj jij --■■- ^1 ij/ Jj^ - (j-a Ja 50 ■ "' • 

(- jj-i 'II 
(j j i 1 '^ u^ ' •* 1 ■ 2 j NHj -N ,jj a'^ I ' ^ 1 . 2 Jt - jj-j -// » V/ (JjLs^J! (jj Jj 20 Ji jj~~- ■ • 

.N0 3 -N 



J^ii_o ^^ J^ 150 • ^ • -*■■' u ^ Ja 250 <a_i_u yjLa_iiJjl i3jjj ^Jl fu 2) Lul^_* <iLa. <j >i & 30 ^j \ . 1 

.(Jjk-JI : <j J i5:l)M2 ^^aluLJ^jJI jjIj^JS 



68 



.Whatman No. 42 ^j-ii^ <3jj i-,^'-- ^jia-JI ^.j £ , <Sj3jJI 
^^iuLjAl ijjU-JI jL^- U^~...~ A^ 0.01 H 2 S0 4 JjU - i^Uii jj3 j ,pH jL^. jjL .3 

.Kjeldahl ojjVl jjj!^ <^_>1= ^ L=^ <Auto-Titrator 

jJaAllI JjI ~^ Jajiil ai -ijjljJ 10 aJ-J jli-JLs jjLSjJI jl j 7 aJ-a-j J "^1 -jjLa'll Jjl ~- . „jj Jj3 .4 
.aJ.=J j]1 Jajyll ^ ^j,La „ II £ jLJI ,jj Jjs 8—7 ^^J^ Jj"-~- II t^iiJ ■''■J~- ■ 

ijl^a. iijj *lis)f jli Jja-u condenser jacket . ^<~H JiU ^ jj^v-H aL^ ^iXE J ■ -^ .5 

1 ll'IK jjUalll .-.Ijl -r- ^j-*~ .6 

jj^ nil j^ 3 (j-s jkiaaJI pUJI ,jj J-a 1 j ajuawJI lLj^jJI ^aa-^ JjU n ^ J^ 1 j-^i • 
j^i^ condenser tip . aVf.il ^,^1 ^Jj .-—~ 3 -utl ^_^ ^ , ja 100 4*^ evaporating dish 

4*^ distillation flask jj u °~ jjjj ^ 1 3- .^j ^jI^I ^kJI ^ J^ 20 i^aLJI <l.Lujj . — ...I • 

.J^lOO 
<IsLujj jjl-i<* II 3jls j lPI JjS&M rV^JJ- 1 *^' JjwjjSI (j-* £,0.2 ■-^i QjU ^.II^NH^-N ja^HJ • 

.calibrated spoon i^LiS <SaJ^ 
jali Lai. ^Lujj distillation unit jj u °~ 11 aj^.j ^l JjL^-JI *_a a^iil^ jj u °~n jjjj J-^= • 
Jjj''il -^ji"° -II * *i ~n~- ~. ,.~ o^^/iil '3;*"^ ij-^i^- '^^ ^ * J -^ -jjUaiil ijLat ijj ii clamp 

[j-ulj J ■ ■ ' r I u -j >La~ 11 d >1 *r 1 fi^jl <a JajLaJI a jLJI ^^ J-* 35 ^Jl^_a. * — ■ aIj LoJj^j ^.a- 1 ^^ 4 Jjlj • 

jj^^'ll j;t~ II j,l"'-ll fLJI ^^ JKIa Jj.<., a^< ~11 

(JVI 5jjlxdl jl^'i-. ^'.-- WO 01 H 2 S0 4 JjU v 5 pH <^jj ^Jl i^LJI ajLJI jpk • 

.Auto-Titrator 

[j-Jjj ^teflon ^jjla i*n . u ~il , , , ■ Ul •« ~ il .j-i^j^. *ii . .i,;i ^ y^ J . -f-\ jajjU-JI ^^ f L^jjVI jju * 

. JjjjAJI J,A=, ^l d_>Xiii-JI ■ -Uallj .J..U , ,,ll 
I jjlijjJI akdi. o- £. 0.2 ^u^,1 ^-U-...~H ^ ^ (N0 2 -N ^Jl ^L^,^L) N0 3 -N j^Hi • 

J j . ,.La J a, l . j Ll . ,. J: jjUa- il j^j^l Devarda's alloy 
jali LaL ^Lijjj distillation unit jjLa- il iji.j ^1 JjU ~n *_a jjLa-il Jujj i^iiLLa J±^s • 

.ijAij^^l jjLa~ JjUf- ^a JU II ^j6 La£ .^jLa'll 4jLa£ Ijjl ii Clamp 



69 



1^ 4j^ILi_-ajl j >Ua~ 11 i3jljJ J ■ ^Q liij tdjj j .d al~^ .11 k >Ua~ 11 .~.1 \ >r ^_u - j >Ua~ 11 aj^j yii^lj . .^ » 
9 jli [JJJI-^ *-L-i j >Ua~ 11 aj^j ^Jl l J^ 100 <a_i_u p jli j >Ua~ ,319 J J-i-a '■ LS ±i La^ <K.C1 ^j ^ ' ^ ~ ■ "^ 

L>li j J .Shhk .11 .-■!•.» 11 J jUa-djl ^ j-.tl vi ^j^^.-H j^uVj .iiili 90 SjJ^^, (condenser jacket 

^1 ,blanks ^jj&Li. j standards jjjj ■ ■• < j^ ojlj u - J^' l^ jj u ~ <jL«£ J^ cSj^ J ■ ■?.■ 

.^ajjtLii JjJU_a^) <ijl iaLil jjjj Af 2 KC1 Jj1~- - 



70 



: LuI^a <iUJI <jjUI ^ ^Lu^jV' C:j jV J=J t> 



(28) 


(T-5) xjv^x mo; x 7000 


FT/ 



^^LiiUjI ij^UI Lf ± i ^lxijJ$\ CajjV JaJ t> 



(29) 


(V-B) x jv x 7? x 7^.07 x 7000 




H7-0 



(j^ J --, r iU JJ U^i,>i1 (! -..,JI A/n m H 2 S0 4 Jjk - r? - = V :jlc 

.H 2 S0 4 JjL^i^Uii = JV 
■*X>M# J MujJ =14.01 

<LLl jjtLi. <jj3 JU-jJ O^y ^ ^1 'NH4-N I4AS -*• Lf H\ <^J^^ j"°'" NO3-N ^jSjj ^-^=^ ■ 1 

.<JjLlJI ^ Devarda's Alloy 'jjLLjj 

.3:1 

^V -^^M kl+J Jjl- *< jbidJI *UJI *1,^*...l» ^--^ .ijo^iKJI ^jUI ^ NO3-N jjLiHJ -3 

** * * ** 

.KC1 ^j^alaJ-L^a ^ NO3-N jjjlH ^ LaJ lu 5L&.1 Jj <_J-a*Jl si* -_-^- ■ " 



71 



J ■ I -■ * II slj^-j (t-1^ SjJJLJI &J£ JLtj-Sj • t j_ > i]Lj4iLa.<jjj [jjjLul Jt 4_il_iLi_l]1 --".I" II ja _>Jaj jl tjaj 

^jj_>iy <ajji nitrification <^iUI/niineralization jja-aUl i,jaj j3 ^I^JL oliuJI ■-■»; 1 jl .5 

.-■Vj^-il J jjj L^a LU; <J5Uia moist soils <Jo_>J1 Jj°- 11 ^^^j air-dry J^JLiiUJI ^jii\ ^ 

ij j jjj j-aaJI jj* oljUJI (jjjl jl Jl .NO-i-Nj NO-i" (j^uiSLsiJI (ji jj^ [JjjLlLJI dLut jji; La LJLi .6 
62 = 14 + 48 : NO3- <jj 4jJSJI £Jj£JI ^jL^ i-ia. jj r ..^ fti ,> oljj iiUj Sj^Ij ojjl 

.(j^LuSjl ^ 48 j ojjl £ 14 (_ji NO3" (j £ 62 j^jj I ji^j 
(jjjjjaUl iLS j NO3-N fc 14 jl NO3" fc 62 LI ,(jj%_>kj <3iUJI aJA jt _>jJiUI o^e j 
^'j'- ojjl j-£^ ^Jl NO3" lj^LjS Jjj^ ji*. ^JJJ 4.43 = 14/62 jl iji <C j= 



>~. . *-. 



Jii ^ NO3-N ppm 10 (jt jjjaUl ,j£aj (JIj-»J' J:,"" (jkj .actual N concentration 
Jih^ . Jij.^^ij.j^'11 ^..i-.^iljj'.jail LlKjj^i: jl .N0 3 "ppm 44.3 jl4.43x 10 



72 



^IjttJIOjtffl 4.1.6 

J,^~...l.) spectrophotometric ^'j ~H ^ °jU il JjU-ii j|_^ <kL_ujj ^I^JiJI ojjVl o^Lu (^i^ 
ijiiii iLLujj u'j'" 11 u°j LI1 JjU'H J,^~..,l J .'■■j- .chromotropic acid (^j^j^^JI jAii 

NO3-N jjjiU JjjjS.t_a1j.iiiJ o^ej -(Sims and Jackson, 1971; Hadjidemetrion, 1982)<jjilJ 

i <£»-"*" <___j 'Ja J '*' ' <J\ ^ rt J* i ^" ^ -^ * ~* <l_j Ja ^jjj <jLuj <_5jl-_. ,_jJ---J ■ i '- >"• j >Ua~ 11 <ijJaj 

.nm 430 <^>JI JjL f^jl-l jl ,_^j-^J' ._. °j u n jjU'il jL^. 

iVO.02 f (CuS0 4 .5H 2 0) L H J laJJI Cities Jj N * .1 
.^-LJI J.H^'ji^il r? ^.n J*__1 ^^a^UUI^^^/^^Jj^^ 4.9936 v j1 

%0.1 ,(C 10 H 6 Na2O 8 S2.2H2O)d ; Ajjjj^3jjSJI o^l^ J^I^.a.o 

.— - J^il____ajl J_i_i__.l .j^yal! di-ty&Jl fj^La^. ^y* J_a 200 ^_- >*' ' *j\ ^ ~j\ \j ^ * ~* (l*-* £ 0.36o i_jjl 

J^ »^j > ' "' 4j_aJ ^jl^JJ' <-Lal__. d "* ' ^ J 

(*ujLJl!I fi\ J^i^.a .J 

Jji 500 ^ ^jVl ... £j_J i°100 aj'_v=>- <^-j-i (jJ^ iai^Jh ijtiiifijju// i^j/_>I3(>i £3.6092 __.jl • 

.(^57jy_^)AnX02^-jJ/^_L^J J l-__ a( > 
I JU ^0 ? j^ ^'"'^.'^Jj 1 - - Jil - ; !; u '' l i'' -7- J- ? 00 u '1 - ^ ^ ^ - _j - Ja 10 ■ °°^ • 

L icLlt ~tyl JjL .^NDj-N ppm 50 JJ*'J Jj U Jl 
: ^11-IK. acLlI ftyl JjL .^.Jj,,.Lal1 JjJL-_-J1 ^. Jl.,.1,,. j.A- • 



73 



L^l a JU ^L^, i^ ^l^ ^^a. 100 ^11 - jj-i ./ / -V/ JjL^ ^J^Tj 6,54,3,2,1 ,_&iL • 
ppm 3.5 j, 3.0 ,2.5 ,2.0 ,1.5 ,1.0 ,0.5 ^jl^ JJU^JUi^ .NOm^L^J! ^Ll^JJ^ 

.^jlll J* ,N0 3 -N 

.A^O.02 
. Whatman No. 42^jjj^ jc^^j L ^jj« J i. J ii<ij3j 15 aj-J^j .2 

^ jjjjJI j-Li *i , conical flask ^j^^ Jujj Jj= 50 ^1 7=-^^ ^ J^ 3 i^sLJI <1=Lujj . .- . ..l .3 

jjjJ Jjl^- -II ^1 ajjiiLia -J La". Jju J La". ,%0 . 1 LLlI fljj i3 fljSjl ;J ^* ^ Jj^ - (j-a Jj= 1 ■ ° ■ ■*■ ' -4 
■ ■t^a-j-a tJJ" 1 lJLJJ^ J ^J" l?^ J^J^"^' '"SO"*^-" U "* (J-* J"* " ■—*-!-&' fu ,Jjl^ ill T j-*' -5 

ijlji *^-jii f-J] J"*" ~-* j i_u <S^j1j ic sjM J^_iL_j ijuJ 1 ^^ Tj •■•*■'*> >* '' tjSJ ^j ^ * -. '' <ai_u.il _ul_ .6 

.<_li3j 45 Liu _ > i__a- , l jjlJI (jJJ Jj~- *j ±>Ja- (iijill 

: Js L^ ^UJI ^ '■ -" ^^ .7 
JLJ1 jaLoSoU^^I jjbj , (ppm 3.5 -05)^ ...La jjU . J<^~ J~3 J,^.l „H J LI , ,. J; . — ...I • 

JLJ1^l^oU^)M jJjj JV0.02 fnSn 4 ST^OJjU .^ J.3 ._ ; \, *l .- J . A, ,>H,K • 

J^L Lf k<Li3j45 jajoLlhJI j .ij^LiJI J_JL^J1 .j^LUJ absorbance ^j-l^JI ^^ .^~*vi ]j&\ • 

.ran 430 <^.j^ 

.^JIjjJI Jt ,<L^UJI JJL^JI ^i N0 3 -N 
.^iLiJI LiJI j> Ji J|i? .11 ^LliJI ^i N0 3 -N ^I^JiJI ojj^l jjS,: 1j3l .9 



74 



^J^' L^ ^'j^ 1 ^JJ^ 1 V 



L^j 



A 10 

(30) N0 3 -N(ppm)=ppmN0 3 -N (^UJI t ^LJI 6-) x x 

FT/ v 






iUa^M.a 



iiLiLtij^ jAii (> Ja 0.1 . a.J.1 , NO3-N (j.a ppTIl 1 (jj jSSl ^ ^jjUI ,1jl=J JLa. ^ . 1 

.ijjaJI ^-.U'.... JjU - ^- J-^ (jJJ (TVO.l H2SO4 (J im/v% 0.2 sulphamic acid) 

Jl „i~ , ,.VI Jjj J"' u j La . 11 f LaJL JjjjJI J-j-uiJ ((jjlJI <JJl^a.jl J-llU. a »Uji_jjJ1 jjj Lrl 1 jl .2 



75 



3&a3jJ1 p U^VI 3Jj£ ^i o$±£& 3 &3JW 5.1.6 

<j_>UI L^jiii (ilJJj (fumigation / incubation) j.a„ ii/^ ,~ii iLj^kj <ij3jjl f La.Vl <1j£ (jJa; 
^Ijj^JJ^tjiojjLiachlorofonn^jjijjtjlSlU^jaJ ,_J1 fresh soil JUI ^s^LiaaJjalJ.1 <-J=_>JI 

ai* jjj JW0.5 K9SO4 Jjl^- -■ I j . ^.M ^*! . ..1 j^iaall ,jj tcAj^u *•■ '~- ■ L*1jli_a J_>^ J LijIiilJI L)!lLa. 

^jj jl JL.T.'illj SjjLaJI Jj~. II oLuKJI ,j-U j-La^ V LgJ>2 <Jj2JI (ji iajAlJI e Lja-jfl JaLiLi [J-uJiJ V iLi_>k]1 

.4iiilJI .-.I'i'.KII Jall^, .1 1 , a l'i . ^ Vl 
Jl ^j.l 1*!* <GLi3jJ1 J 1-.VI <i !*!< I yj ialiia AjljJ (j-a a JjiLJI 4-ijiJI ■"■!'' "* <jjlia ,'*"* aLujVl l_i^u 
I j]^ <aj y=JI oLi-j^J <J^IaJI 4 yljj <iiKi-aJl .^.M . ^.all ^U\,,.l ajil^jl ^-iylJl ^j - ■ -^ j ' ^ ij-a. 
a y J ul-La Z ^j "■ 1 ■* 11 i_j ^Iljl (J^J^J (_jl ■ ■ ^ >a <J.i.lj Ci3j ^_3 <llli_i *LicIjj l_ a ^J <j-U <JjuLa CiJ>il 
.d an^ ^ d > i >« *. u\ ^^ aJ^iLi u^i uij ij^ L* 1^] l-*l ' $*'" L — 1 -J>3 j' 4_iLL=Jl <a_!_iJl ^^I_i_i±aj JjLsJI ^.a 
<l_jja f— 1^ *LiJLljl <ijJajl \Sj G J .^jLajl i_i_ijj-ajlj ■ ■ ^j 'I i_i_ijj-ajl ■ a ■ *>~*> ~ [ -£ OU-iaJI * — ■ . .^ » 1_4J.J£ 

.Anderson and Ingram (1993) Okalebo et ai. ( 1993) 

.pH L> uLi jL^^I Jj-^j-a^l ajpU-o jL^ 



aa-^ ■* 



.orbital ^1 j .^L^^ jl** 

. £■ LaS'j < oL-flLa ^ t^^-N. i3j J^ 'U-HjXJ^ :*LLi_uLii <L»j_iia_a 4 ^' ^-j o'jj' 

J^SJI (j* Jli <( CHCI3) ^jj^JSJI jy^> .1 
•"j"" 'I Juail ^separation funnel j.-a^,a ij a% i i jsr,,//,-^^,^/^^,^^ -jj°jjji<n J.-^i 

<ial£ J^ I - j j-i Jjl^- -II fci-» I j Ua ~ II fLaJI ^j (*_)-* 12—8) oIjji SlK^ ijLjijjjlill ^J? Jjjiil 



76 



M0.5<(K 2 SC>4) jviJu-utj^jJI CalljjjS J^ia.a.o 

M0.2 ( (CuS0 4 .5H 2 0) ^LaJJI C1II1JJ& JjN* .£ 

.^LJUUL^jJ^JI p^JI J^l j ,>UUUI ^^UU! ^iL^iS"^ £_ 49.94 v j1 

iV0.4<(K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) ^^xluU^jJI CaUjjS ^jIj J>^-a -J 

jl"» -II sLJLs jlJ^I - -■• -■ 11 JaSi j -jl"° -II oLaJI ^i fj^tij-JI LZiLaj^^jJtj ^ £■ 19.616 ^jjl 

A^ 0.2 ( [Fe(NH4) 2 (S0 4 ) 2 . 6H 2 0] ftjhU^tVl J JJJJJ^J' attjjJ* JjK^.j 

jl~° - 11 o LJL JlA ^1 - -■• -■ 11 JjSIj Jj^r j^l tj^Sj^JI 

tJjJjjjjLui 10.1 Jjjj ,j 
jjj^j^J! L^iLjjS'^a £_ 6.95 ^(l.lO-phenanthroline),^,^^!;^ 10.1 JjIj^j^ 14.85 ^jl 
.>LJI .LJL^iJ^JI r? -H J^i j <>LJI ,UI LJ i(FeS04.7H20) 

1 : 2 (ixujjJI (JSjaJI (H3PO4: H 2 S0 4 ) j^iuj^idl j ^* ^ *'"'_> j '< H (jAiu^^jj^j . j 
'^j * " ij 1 ^ '"j^ \j ^~ ~* 0"° J-* 500 ^Jl ^S\i// l2jj ij_i£_// i _ rf ^Lui ^^ J-° 1000 ■ ''••>' 

j— a <J^la Jl *Li_i_uj jui3 . J^ 100 <a_i_u [j-ulS ^1 tjiijl ^.a 4 yiIil_Lo a J^i-Lo <j^ O Lii£ ^^ £ 30 jjj jj ^j j . 1 

■ » : ~n ^■■■j.j'.tjj^jjj^l 1 (j-* J^50 ^ jj*'.' J" 1^0 ^ Lj - 1J lf^ t* fumigated samples 
jjX'"* <i_>-"j (jJ^ j^I ii'ji" 'i* 'f'jj^jjijl^J' (j-"l£ (jJJ ^jLjJjUI a.jJajjJ (jliiJI jr^i. i-iiii 
-fumigated control samples *j^ ;* j^L ij^Li. olijc (jJIjJI *Jtit^aJI ^ ^ ^ . ji^ j j,jK]I 

*_a -^ '»' -H <u]a£l » ■ ^ ij . ij^jijjjlilL j ■ ■> ' " II IjtLa <ij_>JaJI j"»'" I $'-• H - - uaj iiAa. (11011 

jLJi j^i jl (jJJ fumigated treatment ^a^lUL oliaJI <^JU-J vacuum j^yUI jL^. -.^'...i .3 

77 



.( ay* 14— O ) o' vj a,i^ j » ^ > ~ IK ^Liiajl <L^JIjl*J i_jJjj j' fl ^ ijilj_ul .5 

cooling jj^^Lil <1=Lujj ij jijj^jKJI j-*- o^~. - - j *L' i '"" ,l ' l j?! < J -4jjI*J' oVLJI (y>J& ^jj<* - 

oLljC <L^JljL*aJ A_l yiljl jUJ-i il JiLi_ul [Cl^J ' ^'' ^[JJlilj . A-Jy&ljl j' fl ^ '"'JJ 0"° ^»^-"' *_LaJ linger 

Jji 100 . a. j.1 . Jj 250 <i- ■ ■• jjLilJji ^Jjljj (jJJ jjtLiJI/a_ > ijjJI <jjIJ' ■*^*'j'* JJii'j -.-.I ii-. .11 «jil .6 

.<^L-u ajj £ j ii .Af 0.5 A^LuLj^jJI CiUjjJjS Jjl -. n ^ 

^jij-JI j_>k]1 jW^?- <kL-ujj ji Whatman No. 42 ~ j ■ -j~ j^j J,^~...l. <j^UI olila-a Tt-ij .7 

^u^JI .1 

^^ J^ 1 ■ ^ ■ -*■■' aj <J^ 250 <a_i_u *^ "• - ■ ^ * l_j^j_ij1 ^Jl «_lLi Jl ^^ J^ 50 d ■ ^1 *'' d ul ,.j. ■ .~. . .J . 1 

.M0. 2 (jjjLaJJI CatujjS Jjk^ 

.^LJjUI a-tlruijJ (jl&iJI ^a^^ (>i jJ=3 a j^ <jSjaJI Cu_^2JI (jAa.^, ^ J^ 10 ^Jli^.1 .2 

,ji o 150 ^ISjIjaJI ^.jjjijl ^ Mock-digester jj^^JI jU^.^ tubes rack ^L&l JaU. ^^ .3 

.iliL 3 ij-J - ■ ^ *l Jl <i°380 ^1 sj'_>^J' ^-j J "Jaf Mj' -4 
.(^jL ^0.1 v ^3l ^Jl EDTA<> f\jL 0. 1 La^JL jj) EDTA^ ^^^LiS VJ ^1j 

.(JVlONaOHo- J-15 ^^,1 ^ ^^i^JI Jjk-JI ^ 



78 



ijjUl ^i 3suajJI ^lo^Vl 4Jj£ (J CsjjVI l$_£^-& v 



;oo+e 250 ;ooo 



(31) Biomass - N (ppm) = (V-B) xj\Tx MOI 



FT/ Fi K2 



(32) Microbial Biomass N = (TV f umigated - N contr J 



(J.) J-,„ 11^.1. ,^i, >!! (;-.. ..I I ?VQ.Q1 N 2 Sin 4 JjU aj ^ J , = K :jlC 

.H 2 S0 4 JjL^i^Uii = JV 
■^jj^gfjiHujjll = 14.01 

(j) JI=J1 jji a jjIiLls a JjiJLjl <J_AJ' ojj = ^ 

(J-*) ^ J "• ' a 11 <j sHJl a i *>* J^ii-o a a a = VI 

(Jj=) JjiLaJI jjl"°*H JjL. a " - = K? 

. Ji=Jl <j-a a yiIil_Lo ijjlu <j >j £ 30 Ji ^_3 ( £ VLaJl <j\j = U 

^u^JI .1 
^a J-a 2 i a i al A-i <J-a 100 <a_i_u *^ a a i *> * l_j^j_1j1 ^Jl «_lL1 Jl ^.a J^ O <U^LaJl d U1 ,.j. ■ -^ ■ ■*' . 1 

j^iuj^idl — CxijiSAi ij^m^i. gjjj (>i J-a 15 j <(HgO) ^^ujJI (II) j-xluSI {y> £_ 0.07 ^Jl^.1 .2 

.(jUlAJI autajjJ ^liiJI ^a^^ ^ jJ=3 ij^ j '(1:2) 

30 aj-aj a i ^ *' ^i 150 ^ILa. aJ y=Jl *^-j^ p^j 1 ^-"" /*-^j' ^ ■ a ' ^ fl J fl a <c^ l_j_uljj1 J_ai_a. *-L-i -3 

<iiaji jiii aj liijiji iji^^i. ia-jjJ -i_>jj ■ ■ i-ivvi 9 j - - 1 ^ j ii ji j -■■ ^ . . i.i'Ni jjiUt jja ■ /<-iji -4 
. Jji 250 <a_uj j-l -*' Jjl 3jJ j lP' jfa^^l* pLaJI (^ji J-a 25 iLLujj J ,. j . a. ^ . H 



t> 



79 



0.2 i^jj^aVj jjJJJ^JI dixijiZ Jjl -. aj jpl^ ^ <(jjJjjj JLuS— 10.1 JJj ^ Jaij 3-2 ^Jll^.1 
.reddish-hrown j-ii-JI ^^iJI ^1 bluish-green jjjJI j."^ ^jjlJI J jJCL !i _ s i^ 1 N 



hjii\ ^ &LJjjJI ^Ua.Vl 4JjS (J u^j^' L?>*^-» J^ t> 



(33) Biomass - C (ppm) = (B-V) yN y 0.003 y x x ;otW 



FT/ 



VI 



_ 



Microbial Biomass C = (G f umigate d- C contr J 



1^1x^11^0.2 [Fe(NH 4 ) 2 (S0 4 ) 2 . 6H 2 0] JjL^;^^ = K 

.[Fe(NH 4 ) 2 (S0 4 ) 2 . 6H 2 0] JjL^^Ui: = iV 

.oj iJ SU^liJI ( jjjll^3 Ji^J0" 3 x3 =0.003 

. Ji=Jl ^.a a yx!il_La ijjlu Ljj £ 30 Ji ^_3 if] eLajl <j\j == t? 



mI C 



80 



1^ Jj i a sJl <jS-uj .«_jLHJ1 a,J_4 (tf-1^ ■ i j l a J 11 ^.a *V *~ i " ijl « La i aHJl J_J^£ ,3-LiJaj ^^^-LlJj-^' [J-^* -1 T ^>-^ J 

.Lj^Vl <il£j 2.64 JsUJI <> Vance e/ a/. (1987) ^U i3 .^^^lJI LjliJ L.5U. J\ (>UI 511*) 
*,•>*. -.a^.LjIi Jaja.ti1 f L^VI <JjS ^ o jjiU 1 .46 JaLsJL Brooks etai. (1985) ^ ■ -'{■ ^j- j » ( <3_jaaJ1 




50 ^Ls 



l> 3° j» J J^ Jj^ 



■ £ 15 ajl=j Ijjj 



Lii 




(Okalebo etal., 1 993) j > a ;~ nas^u.i^-,..,! r, f .-.i;,,n. . r.y. a^j<j . «* - * 11 7 . a J j< . mi 



81 



j^&uj^SUI 2.6 

iJia_oj Ojj-Vl *_a <jj11aJLsj .CWANA<Ualo ^ <-*j^ , -^j/ 1 ^ * * ^^ ^ LJai (P) jtji-j-ujiJl ^^J 

jl ^J>11' f J-JJ *UaJj waj j "^ J-i. ^J] *ZjjL±Jlo u jIiJl ^J ^j a , ,« j a 1' oLiS^fi {Jr*3 i* a , ,«j a ll il A , .ill tt Ja^ li 
^_4 <]_sl3j .<j.jjjjl ^'j^^ -v nail ijljjl ijLLlj. (J^ <^JlJ±Ju-luA\ ■*■' '^1^ ■ "■*'' /j^o, JjJaJI Ji^sJi iJ-uSJ ' ajLJl 

oLjjj S^-JJ *^-*>I 3 L — UJ ** A .J-^J '*~ .J ^ f J J f U **£tJ i-"y ' <Aj_tXiJ *LLi_lJJ Jl ■_'']' ""^ J* ^J^^J ^j' ■_ ' "" * 

ujlfl (ji j^ij_ujU1 a^aj^^^-Lullo J_ili^Lij-a^ J^j . oLLufil j-JI aj_* Olsen e/ a/ f 1954 \ ajjJj_i^J1 
oj^I j3j .CaC03 Jiii Jii ^^ ■ ■■^- ■ ^■.»* J j...ti<ti oLi-L^i J!iU^1 <AM ^ Q^-j^ ' V^^ 1 

--'^j JiiLj d^,,X <ikUl ^j^ <jV CWANA <lklo ^ jja..«ja11 aj^lj ^1~ d^la^. ti iL^Vl 
.~.U,^..N IJyt^VI K^^yJ- ,sy.W jj<j^1 ~i : .M\;A2 7: r<j ^Rygti atirl Matar 1990; 1992) 

-.'■^'■■■j ■'■■j- (Olsen e/ a/ ^1954Y Jj3 ^ ■-■»■ ^-jj ijjL <Aj^\ - jj \j ■ -> H --I'-j-j^j- <S-j>i= 
(<j_>UI ^ ijj-L^aJI £ jLJI aj^.j ^a^) jjIJI <Jlj)f ^^.M ^'...vi JjU . ^ carbon black a^J$\ p ail 

^ .(Murphy and Riley, 1962; Watanabe and Olsen, 1965; Olsen and Sommers, 1982) 

^^~- ^ammonium molybdate ij^j^^l ol jjaJj^ j^k ^j'- • .'j-j Jj 1 - - -.'^'■■■j <<Jja-JI <if_>^' 

.isjjjl ■-■! .-.u '..... ^ ^^jjlJI jej^ 3 ^ 'antimony jj -^ ^ <JJ3 <j-^j ascorbic acid ,*ij. JJ <...Vl 

.nm 882 <^.j-JI JjL (^jlJI jl ,_^j-^J' ,_, °j u ti jjU'il jl^. 



82 



iV5 <(NaOH) (tjjj^uaJ oIpUJjN * A 

M0.5 <(NaHC0 3 ) j^j^usJI cAJ^jjSjjJ^iaj.o 

JjU „.S 5 pH ^1 Jjl^- -H Jj^ -jl"° -H oLaJI Jji 900 ^j- u',-jv 'j"^^'*'^L".l;^'.'o" ?42 ^ 
<> J& V^ fca-u.- V ,^1^ ijjjlUI Jt iiU. .>LJI f UL JlA ^11 r? -H J^ij JV 5 NaOH 

iV 5 <( H2SO4) Cu^jlSJI q^* ^ J^-L^-a . r 
v/w % 0.25 < J^JjijjljLi -p JjJj . j 

. jiLt)fl * -^ ~- - <^La-j (J i«daia.1j -■ "^ -II ■ J_jj ,aJ.=Jj 4lLlu ajj i°105 
(jJJ - ~ -■ H J-aSlj -jl"° -II oLaJI ^'J''- - II Jij ~ jj , 'j J // °l '• ? - j'j ■ "ft-j II t-.fo...ji^ i ~ i 2.197 tj jl * 

Jji=^JI lit ji"» -II sLaJI isLiJj (jj^J .-? - Jji 250 ■'*- ■■• 3jj ' (_pi i 1 Jj^ - ,j" J^ 50 ■ "^ • 

(, jj^ JI ^1 JjL .) ^jk^jiii\ (jj 100 ppm ^Ir jj'^-j 

<>25 ,20 ,15 ,10 ,5 .J^^liK^Ji^/^/Jji^^V^' Jj' u '" ,> JLJ - j— " 
ppm 5 ,4 ,3 ,2 ,1 ^JJL^JI *,'> * jj'- * . Ja500 J- ...dj...... 31^ ^11 . »u JI ^| JjU . 

A jy^a .j 
jiU.il f LJI ^ Ja 250 ^ (NH4) 6M07O24. 4H 2 0^ J > :: JjwS ; / L ^/j : i :: iiM. tLu^^^ 12 v ji • 



83 



,LJI <> J* 100 ^i (KSbO.C 4 H 4 6 ) ^j^z&t ^j^tijJI &IJ*J* <> £_ 0.2908 v j1 • 

,LJL cxJ^ ^JJ - r - " -ftii ^ '^ hjJ -&y$ ^JJ (jiJ JU ji^JI H 2 S0 4 <> J* 148) 

. jjL j illLa jjlia (ji Pyrex L y±^j^ s^jjIj ^ ^j-JI Ja.La.1 ji~° - n 

■ ■-■•j . Ijja. r j-*' 'A- Jgl^.fl Cy* J^ 200 ^i (CgHgOg) ,>l,jj<...VI ^^.^^ ^ i 1.056 ^jjl 

tj^ii-o (j.a J-a 100 ■ ^ ■ -*■■' ' J-a 250 <a_i_u yjLaj_Jjl i3jjj [ r& (a-* 2) Lul^jt <1L^J1 ^_j >-"' Cy* t 5 Oj ■ ^ 
300—200 J<*j ■ ■■■ j-jL^^i r-j j^ { ? ic^ < ' 1 ' 1 30 aj-J <L».j u .<i iLlu. >tl,i, ... JjjjjJI ijlil .2 

. (j_4l_Jujl ) <j sHJl lui^Lo d >.1 > * >S II l J_JLi_-aJl * > *^ <r jCS*'"* * '-^'j lBJ'J^ V J .*^-^iiJ'/ajjJ 

(jiLaJI ^-iljJ (> Ja 10 iuaLJI Jul ...j.. .„ ...l j , Whatman No. 40 j^i.^ 43^ Jla-Jl ^-ij .3 

Jjli_a^ J-a 10 jiL (ill j ^Jiaj (jiaij <5.0 pH ia.jJ (jJJ JV5 CUjJkSJI (jAcL^-l JjU Jl tj^ii'-t .4 

J_Jj I y^...* ,5.0 pH <ijj ^1 Jjk-JI JL-a_j)/ ■ -jIUJI j;^H <_^ ^j M0. 5 NaHCOg 

.NaHC0 3 J. 

. jjlj t jlj l ji Lf J=ij'G2 ^5 H2SO4 ,jj Jjs 1 iaL-al LiAjijjiiLLaJ^ljjJI d^^ V ,'jiLd 

' Ijl'^ ■ ..I jail 'i^. 'i ~ll j. A- .6 
^ JUJI jA USolfl_>a.)fl JJ^ J '(PP 111 5" 1 ) ,j-^Ll3 JjU - J£ ,>a Ja 2 i^sLJI d* Ul , ,. J; . .^ . .,1 • 

.oLuJI 



84 



.olljJI^i JUJI jaLSoUI^I t? tj,M0.5NaHCO 3 J. m . ; 1,^1 •. j .a, ,>ii,K • 

JjL^ ^Ijj 10 jju oLlhJI j -Jj...ljail JJL^JI <jALilJ absorbance ^'j . ~H ^1 ,^.-.V1 ]j$ • 

.ran 882 ^ 

'■I " II UaJI ,jj ^lj(J7 "^ *■!'' '- II (_i j!j° i "j° II j-ii_>J lj3l .8 






,4 50 

(35) Extractable P (ppm) = ppm P (^ mUSIl ^'iVi Jl (>i) x x 

FT/ v 



( £■ ) LpIjA <iUJI <jjUI jjjj = IT 7 / 



jl >-j- . oLiUI j <j_>UI Jj u ~ ^ jiU. Jiju (parts per million) ppm jjjLJLi *j^. £ jaj -,^~...~ . 1 

(iCIl, s-j-uj TT^h' 0"°J y<1 ^ ' ' OjLoiJ-ajl (c-1^ oLi-HJl ^_£ 4j .ylll ^.a j^l^* i mJl j J ^ ■ ' 'J * a " *LLa^ J-alaj .2 
^J^idj y <j a ll ^1 lA^Lajl ijjl-^ aJl jJ .l±1JjJ liij ■*■' i' ■ ixa 1' iJuiiJ ^j ^^ j ^^1^^ ■ mJl ^^ ,J3' ^ixaS 



85 



( JO ^ ' ' 'J ' a LS"^ iCS*'"* ~* oLililAJl * l~* " (_j 1 

absorbance iuj^iJI <J3UI 5*1^3 j^ cuvette ^^UjJ! ^L&t ^jaJ u-uii J -'■■•! J^aiVl (> .5 
j ijjj .-H ipljill j^sLaJI * r ±^ji T LiaiJ(2.10.6 (J i<ij^sj-JI) AB-DTPA jLli.1 Ja^L ..,^',,.~ .6 

jLlLLVI Ijjt ^ <jjUj)/I j'Ua'.llj ^ja,,.jall jjjil] ^>-U~...~ll ^ ..a'. J,i.k~,,,l ^iaj liilji <isjlJ1 

^j* —ii <_ul jill j^sluJI j (NO3-N, P, K) (_5_>jUI <-u1 Jill j^slaJI jjo22 ^ I •*< -j <g1 'universal' 

. j^iia ^-Ui^.x iijliJI ^,_>UI ^ (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu) 



86 



^JSJtj^iuj^Ut 2.2.6 

.(^KJI jtj ' ...jail ^ ajji-^= J .'■■■'■ "plant- available P" 0L1UI <ji a^jUl jji^jill oli>ja. J<- ~ 

^jjla-aJl jl ij a , , .j a 11 JLS-lLI Ji JjUa-jlj (_£^3 jAlu <j ^HJl <G_i£ * ■ *> * K 1' j J a . . .j a r ^j^jLiJ l J - a_iLjj 

.(Olsen and Sommers, 1982) Jaii 
.4 10 ran <^>JI JjL (^jlJI jl ,_^j-^J' ,_, a jU il JjU-ii ji^,. 

. £ La3l ^ oLl-sLo f*LLii_i. ijjl j J fjj-uj^^ '^ » ■ "' »a <j yii_i d '^ ' ^j O'j^l 

.jjj'jjj L_iJjLjl laXa. jL^ja. 

%60 <( HC10 4 ) djj^KJI j^i o^iu^ . I 

jUa . II *LJ1(> J J 400^[(NH4) 6 MoyO244H2O]^j^jwS ; / L ^/jj : Jjw 11l±4^^ 22.5 v j1 • 

■(») 

.(b) >a^JULJI <> J a 300^i(NH 4 VO 3 ) /1J MJ J M.S ; /^/^^ ( >^ 1.25 v j1 • 

■<f>J1 *j'_>=- ^-J^ L^ J ->^ £^3^' ^-^ '^ ^^ l *"?"* JuJ^ lPI ( a )j ( b) ■-«—=>> " 

ojljii^jj ^1 Jjl^. -II Aji i^jjjjl ^1 (HNOj) J^j/' iijy J/^iii ,jj Jjs 250 - t~^i. . a. J.1 • 

.^JaLaJI sLJLs - -■• -■ II ^1 iiiii5 .4ijiJI 

*j'>^^J J L^^->^(KH2^^4)<-^^^.> J ^^^^V-^^ 2.5 ^l^a.t^ia. * 

. jiLt)fl lilaj ^^-j u° ■Jl~J-lj -■ "^ -H ■ J_>j <aJ.=Jj <iLuaJ-il i°105 
- -■• -■ II JaSl ii -jl^a „ll f LaJ| ^iJaa-. .11 J>J~Jj,'jjM °? '• * fJJ ■ "^L",' ^ &(-Li^jJ {y* £■ 0.4393 tjjl * 
L-^ 1 Jj L -) JlA"^' O-^PP 111 100 (^k (^jla-j Jjk-JI I JA jUa^ll ^LJL jlJ^J 



87 



f&l JJ*-e (> J* 5 A ,3 ,2 A ._aiL : (J JlUK yi S ; / L /^ J . ( >i^UJI JjlU .11 ^. Jl,,.!,,. j .a^ • 
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.^IjUl Jt -jjio-jiJ 6- ppm 10 

^u^JI .1 

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^ jJ (^LJjUI ajiruijJ (jlaiJI >^> (>= £^ iiK '^>60 djj^KJI ,J^a j^* "*■ ^ J^ 30 ,_iuai .2 

■W 
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jj£ i_L-i^Jl l_j^_ij1 L_jjl^i. J ' ' '* i iiL ijjj\jl t3j-$ i_}^-3^- Cy* *Lii1_i-il <J_il3 <u*a^ i,_LiiLi_ul ^j ^ *~- '1 ^^ 

ajLJI ~> ■ -' <i=w.jjJ1 ajjt ^i .ijiLiil <S_i3.J 20—15 ajjj (j^*-" *j'_> i ^J- 1 ^ O.!^ '"'^ ' J "~ ■ "^ -5 
iZLfjjl^J! i$J-2 i _y^^^- <l_j Jaj In '1 * ■ ^ fl '1 4_lLa£ a Jl£; i^JLLi-iii .jj-^-UJ 1 J^ J1_j *LuJli1 ^jLijuiU <liL3 wliJl 

.<Ll3.j40 (jJl^a. 

<3j^j 7^-£*j foLi^li—ajl r - V*l t J^ 250 *^ "• Jl u j ' *"* "*• j ^ ^LaJl ft'^' A_t fj yij «_jVJ1 f j .6 

.Whatman No. 1 j^i.^ 

ajjj ,<jilU1 ajkaJI Jj3 jij-J' HNCh ,jj Jjs 20 . a. J.1 iijjj^aJI ajLJLs <jji <J_>lJ' ■-■1''j'" oiK 1 jl 

j 'j'^ '1 a jLajl a,J_i_i^j ^"-^ J |V| ' ^; '"* ' "~'' 

. J^ 50 <a_i_u — » -* ijjijj ^Jl d ^j ■ ^ fl * '' *Li-ajl <3-° J-° 5 *Li-aLajl d U1 ,.j. . .~. . .^1 . 1 
■ jln^ll ^UL^^^II ^1 t-ftia. j <4^jj^jV CaljLlli — CaljJjJ^J tjJ-xA J jLa-a ,jj Jj 10 ^Jli^.1 .2 

j KIX j ...lr a i1 j ^-.J 1 j .a, .3 

^ JUJ1 jjt USolfl_>a.)fl JJ^ J <(PP m 1fl ~ 9 )u ,,,l J° Jj U - J^Q- J- ^ <^=LJ' d'UI ...j.. .^ ...I • 

.oLlbJI 

LaS OW1 ya.^11 XjIjj fij-Jjj-oill ol Jjli— ol J-uJj^a '"n* iJjli_o ^a J_o 10 ■_■ ^ ■ ■ "■ 1 J-iLii s_l^a. tJJjS * 



88 



JjL^ ^jtij 10 jaj oLlhJIj -Jj...ijaii JJL^JI <jjtLiiJ absorbance ^'j ~H ^1 .~~~vi 1^31 • 

.ran 410 ^ 

\_lSl >jj ij . ^> 11 ^j **' '^^>l O'^l ^3 <j-U (c-Jl- 1 ^ -ta-i A-i-u yi tdJ^J ' d I i "' i]L]1 J-JLa all ^jl_l_ljl iaijl j i ^>- .4 

.^Liill U^ II ^ Jljj-^ ~H --I'-j-ll ^ j^a ...jall jjS_jj lj3l .5 



<L j2JI yj yJSJI j^iuj^aJI jJ <> 




(£) Ljjlj-* <iLaJl <JjlJl ^jjij 






89 



t££ua*J1 jjkm^kl\ 3.2.6 

J,^ (j^ 'Ignition Method (3>*JI SsLjjku ^jjll ^ organic P ^ j . ~- H j^i^^U! ^j~- - jji> 
^i inorganic P ^j. a^m ii ^^..jj il ^j~~- - jjjIj' *-a iialjia .i°550 ajlj^. i?-j-> JJ& i>>iJ' ji^ 3 - 

j— 3 •JJ ' ^* j j a ■ "J ^ 11 ip.J}~"- " ~- « < JJLi LaA£ .A* 1 OJj-iSJl ^j ^ * -* J^ii—aj jj-a jLiILi_u J 1 <l_jJaj l_jj1]1 

.ignited sample J«j~- ~n <iaJI ^ unignited sample J«j~- ~n j^l <1hJI ^aj jjAJI ^ ijUl 

.ran 882 <^.j-JI JjL f^jlJI jl ,_^j-^J' ,_, °j u ti jjU'il jL^. 

.ji O 550 Sjl_ja.ia.jJ JJt^jjjJI jj^J <£j-ajJ jl+a. 
ibSjJI/sjjJ 1500 Jja-aj I( _£j5jjs tjt~ jl (j -■. 

.oL-aLo -^ > — » -* ,aj'jj O "jo * oLSj^jj :*Lu_ul_ii <Lijili_a <i >^1 ^ j o'jjl 

iVl .(HjSO^CujjiJIoiiUi. .1 

. jJ=LJI ,LJL jlJ ^Jl j^JI J^lj 
A r 5 t (NaOH)^j^uaJICalpUjy^.a.o 

^ ^.M ^*,,,M I JjlUI jja , ..jill jjjjjj <iJji= (j-S Lai J ' "^ .' 

v/w %0.25 < J^jjijjjjj ^p .£ 
A J^gja.a .j 

^ ^.M ^*,,,M I JjlUI jja , ..jill jjjjjj <iJji= (ji Lai j ■ "^ ,■ 



90 



B J^I^a.JS 

^ ^N ^*,,,M I JjIUI jji. "jail jp^ ^l>^ l*^ ^ J ' ""• .' 

<i°550 ^1 aj'j^J' ^.jj^ia^ *Jjl j <cool muffle furnace * ^l.^.j,. ^i^jl,,, JlJ . Ja-j. . ,^. .2 

.<^Lu 2 — 1 (^jjj <^>-jjJ' ai^ (jJJ Jjj-ajil iaJiUI ajjjl 
^jjjil (jJJ <3ji=^JI isjiJI J^J'j < J J-^4l^J' f." 1 t" '*^'j -LL-uaJ-J i°550 ijlj^JI <L.jJ Lf k JiiLa. .3 

. Ja 100 <a-LU ((^aLjjo Jjj) (£j£j>* JjJ= 
<a_i_u ( L-^jl ^_iLjj_j ^Jjj) J_b£lAla iC V^J-° ^J^ 3 L — J ^3- 1 ^' f_c-^ J^^ - ^ J- 1 ^' ^J-"' <G_i£ tj^.1 <j-a £ 1 <jj .4 

.JslOO 
16 aJ-J r jjl jl(j -■• li- ■ .j.l'Nl . .J. ((^jjjjaJI *&£1N 1 CujjSJI ;jAn^.*\ JjI^- - ,jj J-a 50 tJuil .5 

Jj^ii; -Ijil , <-^j ,,jl^^U*,,,~ll ^K Ijl) <Sj3j 15 ajjJ^ijiiJI/sjjj 1500 jLiijj -.I'-j-H Jii ^Lu 

. l J_ i 50 <JLj_u ^ -* i3j|j J ^Jl ^' ■ ^" «_lL1 Jl ^y* J_a 2 <Li~dLJI <IaL_ujj ■ -^ ■ "' . 1 

LS ^-) N5 ajjjj^usJI OlpU JjU ^; Jjli j <%0.25 J^jjijjjja-p Jjl^— * t>= -talli 5 .Juil .2 
,LJL p^aJ ^Jl J^ij ,B JjN* ,> J. 8 J^.1 ^ ,jb3UJI *UJLi J- 40 yJlj^ JJ j^i .3 

.jJaLJI 

i^L L^^UJI ^-•■-ti j^^ .4 

^ JUJI jj» LoS olfljj.)fl jJjj 710-7 ppm)^ ,,.La JjU .J^. J.9 J ,^.l .II JLI ,,. J; . — , ,.l • 

.oLlkJI 

-■I ''J- II ^j JLJI jj6 LoSoUlj^Jfl f-Aj J 'JV1 H9SO4 Jjia_a ,jj Jjs 2 aiuu I JjtLi jjAi.(ilJji • 

JjL (^k^ljJ 15 jjuoLlhJI j (i^LjiJI JJU^-JI -,' *l .v.llahsnrhaTirP! ^Ij , A.II L>a Li-alaVI IjJl • 

.ran 882 ^ 



91 



.jjJIjlJI Lf i£. -Jj...ljall Jj IU - II a ^,ja,,.jal1 
.^Llill Ja.aJ1 j^a <J^a_JI --I'-J-H ^ jji_i_ujijl JJ^H 'j^l .6 



:<JjUI (ji (jJ^uSJLJI J^&LU^Sjl J^ii ,j.a 



,4 50 

(37) Organic P (ppm) = (IgnitedP - Unignited P) ppm (<_ > mLiiJ I ^'iVi J l ^a)x x 

FT/ V 



(£■ ) Lp'jjt iaUJI <j>U1 jjjj = IT 7 / 



92 



Ajju-uUijjJI 3.6 

** * 

.exchangeable K JjLiIJ JjL5 ^jj^Ij^jj water-soluble K ^LJL^Ij 

^LLiJI ij_ia_ijLj^iJl jJj f<jj1j-aJl ^^isLLaJn ^i.jLaJl ^p^Jall d --^j* *^ *LuAaUJ1 ^jjIJI ji^J A^ J^ ■ - * 

u sj f^jILsJi < ' jS_4j .<iLaJl <Li_iIij <iLsJl .alaLLijl ujj ^J ij_i bJ _ lJ Gj_i]' ^y^ a jjl j *LliS J^JJ C> jL ^ m c_S"^ "- *"' 

* ***** 

Jj^aU-a f jj^ ^1 ^fJJ-^' *->S^ J ^-iL^JI >->^ * Ljji-J-3 <Cls <^L1 ^^A^ (_^ Lajj£ CWANA<ikla 

. lulu n'j jJjj_iLjl J-ia -*j » ■ "'\j >H <j-a *Ldl^ oLi.LiILi.1 ljM 

*LJ1 ^ ^IjJI + JjLUI j1 ,extractable-K ^^.M ^~..,N I JJUI jijA^LijAJI ^j^ ,tdJJ ^ 3 
■-■lj;*^ - ^ ,_^jj J£^> jjIL (_j JJIj oLilJ ^LUI *J^J1 ( exchangeable plus water-soluble K 

^jji J-aiijj ^ppm 150—100 ^ J31 ^^N ^~ . .Al i <]jti]1 *j^>..^j^ti ^3 .*.<jj*..j A ^^n OtH^j 

.^jj'^iLo JS_iiu fe-1^' critical level r - y=J' ^j~ ■ ■* *" ^j^^-* ^j' jj "^ t y ^j ^ ^"^ ^j ^ . ■<*'*j <•" 

(j^aU^jLuj^U JjLUI j4^iajL3^jJ( 1.3.6 

<j sHJ" i^^ ^ f_5"^ aJ^ij-ajl .~.1\j >^1sll l Jlj_u_i_ lJ l i _JzaJ ^y* /_^Jl_Li. ^ < " J^ii-o ijilj_iij <l_j Jajl aj_4 ^_i 
ja£ l_:jI11 j i . .-'ill ■ JjLu_a <Gl Jt <lj^iaJI *,*' (j ■ * j, ' ' - II oLjj-ljliJI j-^JJ (JJ jL^-> tdlil '<JjLlLJI 

"<jjlj + <JjLlLi" l^jl Jt oUjj^liJI jjS_h J! j'- 1 ^ - j *j'"1^H ^j_>I1J j *; ■■■''!!■ Lai Jj...KII 

.(Richards, 1954). 

.-■la~. I ~H *_a l _i^JJLs ijl- II JjU'll jl (j -^ 

.<Sj3jJI/ijjj3000 jLiijj i^j^a tjt. jl o -^ 



93 



iV 1 . (NH 4 OAc) f jhUfrtVl QMii Jj N * .1 

^68^^,1 ^,>LJI .Ul^ 800^1 (CH 3 COOH)jS>J4 1 j£iJ t ^i u .o- a J-*57.JuJ • 

ammonium ^-JjwSv &UL jl acetic acid dMJI U J^^ isLuaJj 7.0 J^ pH iijj Jj^ • 

jUa~il ^LJL jiJ^J - 7 - H J-^j ^hydroxide 

<LLu 2—1 ajjj i°120 aj'_v=>- <^-jJ (jJ^ cL^^ (K-CF) ?-J^^Ji$ jJjj& (_y* ~f 3 <j-]1j-=. ■ "7 • 

.jilt)?! iaii_a ia.Lw.j ^j dU.a-.1j ,. ii> Jl . Jjj ,Sj.a.1j 
jl~a -II o LJLs jXj ^J! - -■. -. II J-aSij -jl"° -II sLaJI ^j ■ "^ -II fkjjjjitijjjl JjI^jjK {y* I 1.907 ^j jl * 

.(jiVl JjU -) ^ja^^jaJI ^ppm 1000 ^ jj*'J'Jj u Jl '^ 
<> J^20 ,15 ,10 ,8 ,6 ,4 ,2 ^aii ^llK^SV JJ^Cr* V^' JJ^JI ^. J1...1... j.~- • 

Aj-lijjsJ 1 Calls. Jjii_a jl j Ua * II oLaJI l_g_ia J£] . al . A.. .*■■ i -. ^jl$j ■* 7 " J-* 100 ts^l p^^ Jj^ " 

. JljUl Jc ^ja^LJjjJI <>ppm 200 , 150 , 100 ,80 ,60 ,40 ,20 ^k ^jl^ JJU^JI ai^ JV 1 

jj^ ijjLi (2,iJ j -jl"° -II oLaJI ^ Soluble -K ^ I ill .jj...I~j^ II jPlW^ jji ijjjjLjaJI Jj IU - II jj. A^~. .^.j 

o!>U. JjU - ^ if^LjiJI JaJU^-JI jj.^' ^^j extractable-K ^^.M ^~..,N i j^lijl ^jj^L.j.JI 

^^>a J-a 33 ■ a ■ ^.1 . l J^ 50 <a_i_u {£*& j-a .*>« i_j^j_ijl ^Jl fu 2 ^.a J3I ) Lulj_4 <LiL=Jl 4_jjlJl <3-° £ ^ Oj ■ 1 

ol jljjjij t_i-uljVl jiltj i_i 7 j .j^jL^S^j jL^-jjk jjIjj 5 ijJ^j ii <4^jli^jVI Caiti JjU n 

[j-^a-j £ ^3j Jl2 ic jJl ^j-^-^' a^Lfi jU_u_i_ulj -^ *l >*1 ^Jj_ijl ajl_o ^.a dr J^ ""* * j' *LLuaj *LuaUaA 

..UaiVl 
«_uli jj 4-3jj j-*£ J-* 100 *Ga_i_u ^ - jjj J ^_3 ^j ^> I ^ ^ ■ ■ ' * II * ^^ » aj ^ UjIj Jjl_i_ujl «_i_b£aj ~-* ij£-i .2 
ivc Ji [ r& ^j ^ ' ^ ^ ■ ■ ' ^ II iluj j ^ >^t >a1 , ^.1 ^jj *LiLaaJI aj_4 j >^J ■ 4_i yliJl ^-* oLljV^. ^-jI jLh_u_i_uj 

■N 1 A^jj^jV CaMi JjU b; 1 7 -. II (_pl <J^j-JI A^JJ^JV Ca*>Li ol iaU'im t-ftia. .3 



94 



.^LlJI *»~- Ul pj-ujlj --jj . ..I'j Jl <j , ,.1'i.H J j.. .La II JaJU - II iUjjj 1 j3l .4 

i_i^JJLi (j&jdaJI Jjii^jJI jl (j a (jJii i sukll oUljS ia. j <(<jj1JI .-.I ,^U', gjj) .-.I*. j- II jji^ lj3l .5 

.ran 767 <^.j^ Jjkj 

. ^jLliJI la J a] I lj ila ( K. ) a j I i "I ~J Jl VlS >J -* I . 6 



<j_>UI ^ (j-clUijujj'sU JjlaJI a^ALuLi^jJI JaJ ^ 



A 
(38) Extractable K (ppm) = ppm K ((^-lJ-jSJI ^V^H O- 4 ) x 



FT/ 



(£■ ) Lu1jj& <iUJ1 <jjUI jjjj = Wt 



ul HI ^jluAj^jJI 2.3.6 

(j.a Jji 100 i «■ jl <Jji 250 <j ■ ■• jjLalJjl J^jj-i uJJ (w 2 ,jj J3n Lu1jj& <iLJ1 -Lpl! ^ £5 jj .1 
.i_i^JJLi ,ySulaJI (JjJ^jJI jL^a. ^ »_ijI ill ijjjjjLijjJI jjS_jj lj3l aij '7=-^j -2 



<J_>UI (ji L^jl jjl A^ALuLJ^jJI JaJ ^ 



,4 

(39) Soluble K (ppm) = ppm K {^^ L >'''-'^ 1 1 t>) x 

FT/ 



95 



JjLuaJl j4^iajL3^jJ( 3.3.6 

: iJLUI ihU_aJI ^ j'j-<* l~v;,,,l ^iijj u a$ ^~,,,N I J Jail -jj-^j; II II -~l 

I 

(40) Exchangable K (ppm) = Extractable K (ppm) - Soluble (ppm) 1 



[jjjlljjjlJI £b_>k]1 j"''" JjLlLJI (Mg) ijjjjjLillj <(Ca) ..jj...il<ilj ,(Na) -jj >j "-H [j-uLiS^ii; .1 
o!>U. JjL. - ^ ^^.M ^~...M I jJajl Mg ,Ca ,Na o-uLjS (4; ^f 3 - -(K) JjLlUI ^jj^^jaJI L$j 
Mg ,Ca ,Na ^ j^l JLaj^j jUa jl ^LJI Jj u -,_,'■ »jIjJI 'Mg <Ca ,Na ,_>J-j3 j^J 'fj^j^' 

.^IjUI^'JjLUI 
o5La. Jjia-a (ji ppm. 200 ^1 20 ^jj rjljU ,-jj >j ■"^ j *j mLjUl JjJU_JI ^ <J ■ J ■ ■• jj ■ -^ * Cj^z -2 

^J L <^Lu 24 <> Jl& Mg ,Ca ,Na ,K ^ ^jUJI ^il^JI bia ^ ,_^-j ^^^...Vl <J^ jaj .3 

.{£ j_uS_hjl j-all' * " y A 1 *LufiLi. <loLa_o J^Iaj jl JjLj ^jl^-a (—3 U.a-^ * 

.•UjLiUI Mg ,Ca 'Na ,K 



96 



j^jjj^uaJI 4.6 

*Ij_1_JLaJ1 <j_LiJJl j^l^* ■ "^ ^_a jl JajLaJl v LaJl ^^-sl ^~ ■ .i ^ ^>* u -*' J-!' *jjJj_b£lJ' rj-1^ Uj |J "*^ '' ^j^ A1 Lalii 

JJiUI j<(j ^ iLLu^j CH aLL2 x ^J1 ^ ijpjj_u-J1 jjjm o^? < ^ =h ^ -EC jjjm jjc saturated paste 
J£_JLj Ijjt^^-ikijj .(Richards, 1954) ■_■ $ 1 1 L^iLol ^^aH Lj^ j^J^ £* V^^ 1 <il2S j j.^«ti» 

ppm 1000 <(LiCl) (>j_in11l jliIjjJS JjK * .1 

.>LJI .UL^LJ^JI r ? - I I J^lj ,>LJ1 ,LJI ^ ^UJI ^jmLZ// oj/j^o- t 6109 V^ " 

.U&IJjL-a) ppm 1000 LiCl^ Jjk_J1 !.''* jj'-j 
ppm 1000 ^ (_jjlij Jjk-JI I JU -jU-H *LJL jlJ --■■- ^il ^Vl JjU - (> Ja 100 ■ «a^ • 

.(^.til-Jl fSt! JjL-*) LiCl 

j_>j ioL^Lu 3 ijJ i°110 ajl_v=>- i^-jLiJ jjj^L 1 (NaCl) ^j^jj^sJI jJjj!£ ^ £■ 5 <j-]1j-=. ■ "^ • 

. jiLt)fl <La£i_a ia.Ltj ^i<(JiAa.1j -■ "-- -H ■ 
jl"» -II f LJLs^jXj^l - -■• -■ II J-aSj -jl"° -II sLaJI j «' "-- -H JLjjJj^d! Jjl^jl£{yi £■ 2.5418 tj jl • 

LS'/JjikjNa) jijpjj^appm 1000 ^ Jjk_J1 I.''* JJ* U .,^ 
<> J* 20 ,15 JO ,8 ,6 A ^^J^^UK^Jj^^-L^UJ 1 JjiU .11 ^. Jl. .,!.., J . a, • 

.N 1 ijAij^&l ---M ^ JjU - J\ jUa~H *LJ1 -(j''- J<l. « I .^j>.j- ^ 'I (j '■ - ~ - 100 ^ II - V/ Jj L . 

,60 40 ,20 ^ ^jl^ JJU^JI ai^ .(ppm 100) . J^ J l ^1 jjL .T.in ^. j.75 ,_l^1j 
.JJU^JI Jll (ppm 25) LiCl JjL^o^ j^j^l l^;-* <Nappm 200 ' 150 ' 10 ° ' 80 

^yaii^. ,,.mi.i J -jUa.il ^LJI ^soluble-Na^jljJI -jj-^j;!! jj^HJ i^uLiiJI JJU^-JI jj,a^~. .^^. 
o!lU^ JjU - ^ i^uLjiJI JJU^-JI jj ■ ^-^ * ■ - r ja extractable-Na ^^.M ^-,,.M i j^HJI ^jj^tjjjl 



97 



_LikJI JjLJLJI jl(j -^ lr . ajUII oUljS is. j <(isjl]l .-.I ,,-U~, ..,.') .-.I', j- II ^ -jj tj ■->!! jf^jJ lj3l .3 

.nm 589 ^ Jjkj ■ ■ 3 m . 

.^jLuJI ^_L=^LJJ 'a lis ijjJj-i-aJl j_iS G ■_■ ■■'-.' .4 



:<j^U1 ^ ^^oM^xujMJ JjUUI jl i_ulJJI a^jjJJa-sJI Jii ^ 



(41) 


iWi 


(meq/L) 


= meq/L Na 


(^UJI ^ •■-•■-« ,>) 


,4 


Fi 



(42) 


A 

Nn (ppm) = mpq/T.Nn ( ...1.311 \„ *. Jl ^ ^ v ^ 9.3 

FT/ 



(£■ ) LuI^a <iLJI <jjUI jjjj = Wt 



98 



Ca^LiS L-cul (^iaj L£ .(Richards, 1954) EDTAJjk-uijjU-JI Ja ;j u ;j J;-:.„.il ^ LiajjS^ 

(NH 4 Cl-NH 4 OH) Buffer Solution jili^j jy^a .1 

''.'^"^"wJ 1 '."* J 1 ."* J^""^jj-\'* ^' j. 4.5 f-a Eriochrome black jj^ii! ^jjij^j ^ £■ 0.5 ^.jl 
Ji aJjJ^- j *^j -~ - j'"- .%95 Cf J^) Jj~ "CM Cy J-* 100 ^ hydroxylamine hydrochloride 

N0.01 <(EDTA) ,'ljKII ^Lj ^1 ^Lu ^LSI pima, JjK * .^ 
,jj £■ 0.05 .ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid dJ^I ^Lj ^^J ^L^ iS L2l a J=^^ ^. h 2^j1 

iV2 t(NaOH) j>^jj^u=JI CalpUJ^la-a .j 



( C 8 H 8 N 6°6) W>«Vl C:!^^ JJj .J 

(> £_ 100 j_a (Murexid .^..aCj^j JH ammonium purpurate *.j^jjtfl ^Ijjjj t> £_ 0.5 ^ jJ 

A^ 0.01 ( (CaCl 2 .2H 2 0) ^LaJI ^1 ^^xudliJI jliIj^IS Jj N * .J 

(fi°100 sjl_>^.ii.jj jjt oL^Lu 3 ijjJ CaCO^ ■ »°~) - jj-» -// -j,j. „//<// t-'^j^^j- £ 0.5 ^jjl 



99 



4 J \\x . ,Jx,^ i ^jl /j*v ^i Li-aj'j . JaLaJl ^LaJLi sJjJ^j] iLi^iJl J-aSljiV 3 p La // j^iS^j^aj a ^j a J^ 10 ^J 

.>LJI ,LJI o- jlJ ^i rLJl^Llfj^KJ! jjljJZcyi £_ 0.735 

^^xtdiiJi .i 

1.0 ,jj ji^i j^k (_^j^j V >-j- 1 ( <jLiiL-JI <j_>U1 ^j^U',,.. ^ Jj 20-10 iuaLJI <1=Lujj ■ .a ■ --1 .1 

■i_U 250 <a i ■• jjLilJjl JuJ" 1 lPI '*^ a L>'^*J^J" 
(jJl^i. j ( JV 2 ajjj^usJI OlpU Jjla_a ,jj Jj 3-2 ^Jll^.1 ,,Ja 30-20 ^^la. jbaaJI pUJLi .Jiia. .2 

jj^j .(_jljji.jl jl ■ ■- 1 .?. ^Ija.jl jjl j -- 1 (jj tj->^' j- 1 *-" u*"* -N 0.01 EDTA Jjl^- -■ jAl. .3 

■ l djJ i 

■*■! *' '- II Ljj JjiliJj-lJI <Sj_>JaJI ^j ..a*i. U i . A.II .d I ~l^j (iijjjl lj£,La J-llU. =J1 J^ JJ~~- ' 1j *1 l± ■ j (j - La J J .4 

.J^ 250 <Aj_u yjl aJ Ujl ijjijj ^Jl <JLJ_Ju-a]l 4-ijlJl ^j gala J i m ^^ J-° 20—10 <Li~dLjl d U1 ,.j. ■ .~- ■ ■>' .1 
Jjjj ^ <1J3 JaiJj ">K\fl I 1 Jj l^.fl I 1 (j-a Jj 5—3 . a.J.1 a^ . J_a 30 —20 *- jl"° -H o LaJLs ■ "' 

.^jl^l^^OjlJ'^^^-^0.01 EDTAJ^^Lc .2 



<J_>UI ^ (jLkjl jjl A^jjjjudl jl A^XLlJlSjl JaJ ^ 



(V- B) x JV x R x ;000 
(43) C<3 or C<3 + Mg (meq/L) = - 



Wt 



(44) Mg- (meq/L) = Ca + Mg (meq/L) - Ca (meq/L) 



100 



■( J-°) >J-4Liijl a oiJLi a^a =h = i* 

V? A ' l J ^ A *iiJl O-Hi ij^a jLiXi_u 2 ' ijjli— aJ 1^'' a^a^aJl ^jAi *Li_i_Lilll — it 

.(£) LuI^a <iL=JI <jjUI jjjj = FT/ 

.EDTAJjL^i^Ui: = JV 



iLj^kJI ^..a'.. t^., A.ll.dLlrj JV0.01 -JJ...IKH j-iljtjK JjU -^- J- 10 iusLJI Jul ,,,j. . .„ , ,.l • 

.(jjljjjl ,_jk <Ca+Mgj Ca jpjSU oLlaJI L^ JsL^ ^1 



10xN CaCl ? 
(45) at _ z _ 



V EDTA 



(Jj) jO^~ mill EDTAJjU «.-*?-> = ^EDTA 
.CaCl 2 JjL^<^Ui: = N CaCl 2 

.Ca + Mg jj^ jjt Jj.lu.M1 ^ %5 J1 3 Jj...'.. ^^kl Ca jj^ jjt Jj^UaUl * jit jjji; . 1 

U^iK'nrJl ,jj Sjji i^ J-La£ OJ^ 'L?jJJ' LH^LuSJulVLl ( jJL>bJI JjlL^jJI jL$J. jJj\~ml J La. (ji .3 

.Mg j Ca jjjSU <jiLS j_Lii-JI 



101 



CiLJ^JjS^JI j CaLJ^JjSJI 6.6 

.(Richards, 1954)^ljHI Jt ,4.5j 8.3 pH JJ AT 0.01 H 2 S0 4 

%0.1<(F.W. 327.34) ( [4-NaOS0 2 C 6 H 4 N:NC 6 H 4 /-4-N(CH 3 ) 2 ]J ; il^l^Jlaj >> jJJj .1 

A^ 0.01 ( (H 2 S0 4 ) CujjiJIo^aAjjK^.o 

,j_>jj<Uij Jj-i^jJ -jUa~il f LJ1 ^ (%98 I sp.gr.l.84)j5^/tTi : .^ : i^/ 1 _ > ^Lii ( > Ja28 ■ «°^ • 

.JV 1 ~--j '^H ^j ^ - - Jt ^£J~- ■ Jj^ -11 1 i* j1"° - 11 * LaJL _>Xj jjl - -■• -■ 11 J-ailj 

JV0.01 .•.^iijA- J- j^ j — ii (^,-ji rr ~ ^ii j. mk^.inn ^ii.^ • 

%1 (yjJlji J^iddi JjJj .£ 
.(ethanol J J ili,1) ( ^I 1J i y/ Jj^i//^ J^ 100 ^ ^tU J^hAJ! JJa ^ i 1 v^ 

<i_i£jl <JLj_u1j ^jjl_i_Uj^_Jl ^.a <J \ a ^ a <JLi_Ju-a]l <J sHJ" ^j ^1^ ~ ■ "^ ^.a J^ 15—10 <Li~dLj1 d U1 ,.j. . .~. . ■ •' . 1 

■ Ja 150 <*-"* je'^^jl JuJ^L^ J' 
iVO.Ol Cu^jiJI (J^iiLa, .J^il '(J.J&J jjJ_>^ 1 iji ^jjjJljS J^jjjdl J-Jj ^a aji-lj <J=ii ,_iuai .2 

.jjjlJI Jjjj ^La. ( <Jaiii <]ajij fbUTette J-U ■■■11 <1=Lujj 

.y (SfljiJI ji. .3 

JjlxaJI (jJISj^ JjJj ^a ^jlkii <iLil j*j iV 0.01 Cu_^2JI (^Aa.^, JjU ^; sjjU-JL j^IlJ .4 

.^fc^l ^1 J^i.^%0.1 

.t^J^UI ii. .5 



102 



<jjUI (ji CaLJ^jjSjjJI J CaLl^JjSJI JaJ ,j.< 



2y x JV yR x ;ooo 

(46) C0 5 (meq/L) = 

Wt 



(t-2y) yNyRylOOO 
(47) HC °3 (meq/L) = 



Wt 



103 



.H 2 S0 4 JjL^i^Ui: = JV 



Jul j^JSJI 7.6 

1954) ix^ill oljjj Jjl^- -■ sjjUlJI <Sj^J=j ^j»1^~. ..~ll ^ ajjS_>j jJAy ((oLjAial ^LuliJI 

. (Richards, 

. JajLaJI ^LaJI ^^ J^ 50 ^ ,-* J 1 ' r ^" i^Lyji^ £ 5 L_jjl • 
. O-iU ■ a >a~> j ■*- ' 'j Jn ■ ■ ~» ~- Li^jjjj iV 1 <* r -^ J // ^/jJlj ■ a . -^1 • 

^ua.m.iL j.mn^ii r? ^n jxlj .,.7^ • 
A^ 0.01 <(AgN0 3 ) luaill ol^uJjN *.o 

, , a a -. ., II . j^j -j'Vl . .. ajj i°105 Sjl^^i. ia.j-1 .Ji jjjULi d .Ail/ tZifjJj (j-a f 3 jjlj^. i_ftia. * 

.jilt)? 1 * -<- - <^-La-j (j-i "tJaia.1 j 
jUa~ll f LJLs _>lJ ^1 - ~ - II Jj^lj -jUa-H *LJI ^'J"- -H d.Aif! ,-Jj"J, i 1.696 tjjl • 

iVO.Ol ,(NaCl) pjjj^uaJI jliIjjJSJjN* .£ 

ji"» -II * LJL jlJ^I - -■. -■ II J-aSj -ji"° -II sLaJI '^"^ -^ ajjJjjuoJI jjt^jK^ya 1 0.585 <_, jl 

j I d — ^u a 11 <a_ 1 _ulj ^jjl_i_uj^_ijl (2>* d *^^ ^ d ^ fc ■ ■ ■ *H <j yHJl ^j *>1^~ ■ ■>*• ^j ~ l J^ 10—5 <Ll^UI <iul , ,.j .. .^. , ,.1 . 1 

. Ja 150 <i^ jjLsiJjl J^jjJ^ 



104 



^s^ ^ J j' J^ 1 J^ <> 



(V - B) y- N y- R y- 1000 
(48) C/ fmeiy/i; = _ 



m 



.AgN0 3 Jji^^Uii = JV 

AgNOj J^ia-a 4jyjltiJ jjjSj 

Jalii4 iaLil ja.siV0.01 J.^j// ,-./_," JjU ,./V0 01 ^jjjj^l jjljjg ^^~, ,^Ji 10 jpli • 

. AjljJl yti-iJl '>ll /j alii s^laj __Li. ^jJjj^UflJ/ lTj La J7>S lIj ^ A LJ-° 



(49) N AgN0 3 



10 x %aC/ 



V AgM0 3 



.AgN0 3 JjL^ i^Uii = N AgN0 3 : \ c 

(J*) ., ^'..-1 1 AgN0 3 JjL^ j^^. = ^4gJV0 5 



.NaCl JjL^ i^Uii = N NaCl 



105 



CjUujjSJI 8.6 

SJSjlH ^b^s 1.8.6 

^i S0 4 -S j^ ^U ^ <>j (Williams and Steinbergs, 1959) %0.15 CaCl 2 .2H 2 
.(Verma, 1977) j*jjjLJ ■'■ i *jj,' < Jj u - -I.^'^-^K-H Ja^u.-.l ,«u-,,. -il 

jj^pjli ijijjJ' jj^' Jj .«u -i i* . ..'ill -j -ija — il sjlllj «_ailLi ■ -j^ ii <_Li_ui]Ls CaCl2.2H20 

.(Tandon, 1991) 

.ran 470 <^JI JjL ,^jjlJ1 jl ^ui l j^u-i l -j_^ 

% 0.15 ( (CaCl2.2H 2 0)pUJI ^Lu ^^xudliJI jliIj^JS Jj N * .1 

jlJ^JI j^JI J^lj f >a^JI ,LJI <> J-*700 Jh^^eUI^Llfj^tSJIjjIjjgcyi £_ 1.5 v i1 

.>LJI ,LJL 

M6 ( (HC1) pUJI j^JSo^l^ jy^a.o 

<^j Jj-^jJ ,J=a-JI ,LJ1^i(%37 <sp.gr. 1. 19) j^JhLJ! JJ K L> J s .^^ J^496.8 ,_&iL 

^j^JL ,(BaCl 2 .2H 2 0) ^jUJI jliIj^S .£ 
^U J^la.a %70 <sorbitol J^jj^lu .j 

J.il^-ji^il r? ^i l j^ j <>LJI ,UI ^(K 2 S0 4 ) ^j^&jJ/^iL^S^-at °- 5434 v^ " 



106 



{r^ 1 Jj ! ~ -) SO4-S ppm 100 ^ jj*'J'Jj u Jl '^ j u °~ ti 
<> J^50 40 30 ,20 JO ,5 ^aii ^UK^SV Jj^, ,> <^UJ1 JjlU -H ^. JI...I... j .a, • 
-l~lt ^ .7:? -^, . „//<// ,ij!jj!< Jjl~ - I -(p- J<l. «l ^j >-j- <_^iUi -7- Jj 100 ^1 - V/ ^ /- - 
.^JljUl^kiSC^-Sppm 50 40 30 ,20 JO ,5 ^^jj^ JJU^JI s ja%0.15 

.Jji 150 iijjj jjLalJji J^jj-i ^(m2) LpljjtiaUJI <L_>1]I ^ £■ 5 jj .1 
ji ,ijLU=ji ijljjjj ijiljjL V) <%0.15 pLdl (_-jLu a 4auJ15L!I jjIj aJS Jj^ - ^ J^ 25 . a.^.1 .2 
-■■ j >*Ct 1 ,-.!*. j< ~l J ■ — . ^ j, h~ 11 x, h , ,,v Yl l ^£, i * -. I *i II , IUx.N l ^ il* . 1 Jj_JI (jj <3L3 o J 1 LIU -I I x \\ t \ , ,.l l ,_al^ 

(* tl,> ■ ■■!! ^i jiljli 
. (<Sj3jJL/aj j j 180) ^jj_j2 ^jlj^ir j j^{ 7 u^ 1 * <Sj3-i 30 ijJrj .3 
. U^; jjIJI Iujl oL-aliiuia <1j_>W a Jw L> 1 "-~ .Whatman No. 42 ~ j ■ -j~ <3j(jj ^jla-JI t^j -4 

<Lii_o J3I d > ^n . .^. , ,.' jl fl J_i 50 <a_i_u jLiIi.1 l_j^j_ij1 ^Jl ^j ^ * ^ ~ ■ ■ ' - '' ^^ J^ 10 <Ll^Uji <iaL_u^j ■ -^ ■ "' . 1 

.>LJULJL J-IO^JI 
<1=Lujj%70 J^jlij^lu J^-L^-a ,> J»5 <lUiLM6 plaJI j_$& p^aa-a, J jla_a (>= Jj 1 ^Jli^.1 .2 
<ii*U Lajiiuia) (_j jj 1 ' 1* a ajjLJI jjIj aJS ^ £ 1 ^J'ja- ■ ° ■■**' <'j^-i jj ,'^ 13AJJ £*' J ■UaU 

uUs 



.3 



i^L US ^UiJI J '"''- ti ^^ -4 

^ JUJI jjt USoU_>a.)f1 ^tj (ppm 50-0) (jjjjUiJjU-aJS^jaJa 10 i^sUJI d'UI ...j.. .„ . .,1 • 

.oUaJI 

oU^I £>\2j ,%0.15 eLJS^Lifj^KJSjsSjjKJjl^^^ 10 ■_ : V*l .r.^ ^ ,>iy>< • 

-■I'' j- II ^i JUJI jjt US 
a^iiUa oUuJIj ^ij^UiJI JJU-JI <jjtUUJ (turbidity) absorbance ^'j ^ ^^ ,^.-.vi 1^1 • 

.ran 470 <^.j^ Jjl= j^ 



107 



ViSl G j 'j 1 ^'' ^j a' i *>~^N' ^1 



.^JIjjJI ^k ,<L^UJI JJL^JI ^i SO4-S 
.^LaaJI JaiJI ^j- ^jjj-^ ill olloJI ^i SO4-S jjS_>j IjSl .6 



:<jjUI ^ SjLSjUI 3&jjku CaCijjjSJI jJ ,> 



(50) 



SO4 - S(ppm) = ppm SO4-S dj-^LtfJI i ^'^'^H 6-* 



JP/ 




( £■ ) Lp'jjt <iUJI <jjUI jjjj = FFjf 



:£! C 



liiLa. j i^Ijj 3—2 ,j£i jjj^ ajliJ (<j_>jJI .-.I .>-U*. ..-'j j *lj(j-^ -II --I'-j-H j * >j ..I jail JjlU -II djIG V . 1 

^jjlll . ijUH JjU'll jl (j -^ ^j- *•■ I j°H iaJ JjJ^jLull r j 4jLa£ ajkl jaj liilll 

J ■ I -■ * II jl (j -■• & ijKa II a> l_>3j r jJI (jAi ^Ij(i7 ~H ■"■!'' '- II j i ■ 1 ■■! '°H JaJU. -II Lij_>Sj o3jJI (jjiii Jacl .2 

.^JL^I 



108 



ojilujjJI %2la^ 2.8.6 
.(Richards, 1954) (\jjjLJ1 ol^^^^iaj^k^LJI ^s^Lc oLi^-sUI JL ii^ 

.muffle furnace Sj-a^a 

%0.1 ( [4-NaOS0 2 C 6 H 4 N: NC 6 H 4 /-4-N (CI^] JAxdl ^JISjjj JjJj .1 

1 :1 .(HCljpUJIj^QinL^JjK/i.o 
A^ 1 ( (BaCl 2 .2H 2 0) fkjjjLJI jjIj^JS JjN* .£ 

pyrex ^U* j o-^ ^J SO4-S ^KaJj^0.5 ^1 0.05 ^iyLJI isjjjl ^-.U'....^.. jV..v .^ .1 

. J^ 50 ^Jl ^j ^ * ^ ~ ■ ■ ' * '' ■ qs~> aj ^3-°j J-° 250 <a_i_u 
jJ Ijji tJjj^aJI (jJlflij^ J-Jj ,j.a Jallj 3-2 ,(1 : 1) plaJI j^JS u^wui, Jjla_a ^ J^ 1 .Juil .2 

.(1 : 1) pUJI J.3JS tj^iLJi, JjL-s Cy *^j V^ ^-L^al '(_$jJt,ji\ jjjlJI ^1 jjlJI Jj=-jj 
jjIj aJS Jji~- - ,jj Jji 10 . a. ^.1 ai (( 2)LJiJI ia-jjJ ^ ■ ■• ^hotplate <jjl1ju j *'-^ ■ ■• ^^ [j-ujjiJI • ■ * .3 

.jijjjLJI oli>_>-£ Jiii^jlt SO4-S ^^jjl^ 1 _^HaLj N 1 i^jjUJI 

. J yjj ~-* J^li—aJl td sjI A-t <<^L_u *Li.LiAj auaiLo jjjjj^^jl j <<1_l5j 10—5 aj-aj^i^l .4 

<3jj Jt ijjjLJI oLij_>ji I j » -~ I j i ashless jLa^l i^jj^ ■- ■ ■ -j' i3jj JiL^. ^ Jj^ -H ^-^j .5 



109 



uj 1 - 1 ' jM^ ^ J^j iSj^ iA l S^ t> AgN0 3 JjL-s ^LLujj ^i-ljJI Jjk^JI ^ lJl.1j.jKJ1 

^j \jJl <lj j_oj <t LLa a (J_j_i1_i_lj ijj <1jjj (—3 ■_■ i u' J' *_a «_iali sill *L3jJ ^ —l- ^ y J ' LflJl *LiLa£. ^.a ^L^Ujj' JJ-i .6 



<jjJJ1 (ji lj^lujjJI ^Ajjku CitjJjjSjl JaJ {jJ. 



t-b 

(51) £C>^ - S(meq/L) = x 8583.7 

V 






110 



UiJ^ 1 9 - 6 

(jaLuJULJI^ajjfa 1.9.6 

fliiV <^ J ia fc LJ1 W^j <Berger and Truog (1939) J_i3^^LJ1 -I *ti » ^N ^-...vi iL^ o^j3 

^J oLilll J-aJJ daUl All ,jj iJ-Jl f ' V*-' j' r" U-aJl LjjJI Ojj-^ (j^uLlD ' jLJuljl .jjJajl S-"' (J - * U'3"* J 
rl— ^jULiojijl ijjl-^ ■* il,_LiILujLj *Lsjjlll <ij JaJLi <j sill ■*■' ^1^-^ ■ "^ ^J Ojj-J -1 ^ U^^JJ .<_ijJjL11 u sill 

.(Bingham, 1982) 

!jn£iiJ ^j-fi J-lo-flLs— aJl *^ ■* ^jIaj ^jl J-aLsj fppIH. 0.5 ^.a ,J3' 4_s yJjl ^jj iJJ _■' \J~ ■ " A 0-J^"* C> jL ^ m 3 
*Llaj_u A_o J_ia-flLs— aJl A.U.* a ^IjlLuj fppiTl J j\a s-i^l *Lj s-Ul rjJjJJ , — \J * ' " A Ul?^ 1 '— ' *"^ * tilJJ ,*— fig "tjij^ij-" 

. jilj fjiiJ ijjJ jij-JI HC1 j la^ ■ ■■■- ■"■-^ ij 1 *- J" 50 <i- ■ ■• (pyrex) jji **'j*j' JuJ" 1 
.nm 420 <^j-JI JjL f^jiJI jl ^'j^'i ^ ajU n jjU'H jl^a. 

pK'rtll JjK/iJ .1 

{y* J-a 125 - t~^i. . a. J.1 ai jUa „ II f LJI ,jj Jjs 400 ^i (,~JJ \j "** ^ l^^" EDTA) ^jjJj^J! ^jJLLj 

.1j^^>I £ ,(CH 3 COOH) u ^£//,iiJ' t> i*» 
( B-free (jjj^jJI l>» lt"^) J 1 **" (*^-aJI -o 

.<^jiij t" '( ^ : 1 *.'' "*'"* "^ i*_" i" ^1 u^.') J*"° * ^ J ~ll -(9— 8) jj^~" J<.T..<H ..« ■ -~. all I,''* j' ^- 
JjjAJLs j ^ i 'm l .(jjill jL$Ja)l H— ^j L^ajjl Jjl^-a ■UaL.ujj jc-ili'^l ^ jjjjj -ij^-J ij ^^ < dA-^J 



111 



(C 17 H 12 NNa O g S 2 )H- O^jjl J^^> •£ 
.%1 L-ascorbic acid id^jj^J/l ^Ju^ Jji- - ^ Ja 100 ^ H-jiL^j/^ £_ 0.45 ^il 

.>LJI ,LJL jlJ^JJ — " J^l j ,>LJI ,LJI ^ (H 3 B0 3 ) ^j^J/^^i^. ,> £_ 0.114 v j1 • 

.( f S / /J J A- o ) t jjjjjfPPm20 ur k^ J l^JjL^JI li» 
15.0 ,12.5 ,10.0 ,7.5 ,5.0 ,2.5 ^aii : us JLUK /i S'/ Jj^^^UJI JJU-JI o- <1-J-^ j--^ " 

^£J~- * J-JLi_aJI ai* jl"° - II o LaJI - (j *' - J^ I . a I . A . . *■ ■ i - ".I j *. " - Jjs 100 jjl - W ^ /- - ^j - Jjs 

.^IjUl ^ ,ppm 3.0 ,2.5 ,2.0 ,1.5 ,1.0 ,0.5 Jt 

HC1 j U"-m nJ^ ' J-a 50 i^uj (pyrex) jjL»iJj1 Jjjj ^ Lpl^ iiUJI <j_>UI ^ £■ 10 *_^i . 1 

.jhaaJI plaJI ^a Jj 20 ^Jli^.1 .3 
jjjiiJ IjjtLa. rc-ji\jl\ jjji; Ltjjt .Whatman No. 40 ~- j —j~ <3jj Jila. ^ ajjiiLia ^jLull jt-ij .5 

.airuxaJI J^IjwaJI ^ J^ 2 ,_iuai .2 
■ j KIX j ...lr a i1 j ^-.J 1 j .a, .4 

JLJI jA La£oU_>a.)f1 jJjj '(PPIII 3 0-0 5^ ...La JjU . J< ^ . J . 1 <^sLJI d'UI ...j.. .„ . .,1 • 
.oLi-aJl ^ JUJI j_4 La£ oU1^a.)f1 £-?ljJ -j^^^ *LaJl ^ Ja 1 ^^s^j^aa 1 J_*Lli j_uCii tiUj^ ■ 



112 



Jjla ,_yk <Sj3j 30 jaj oLlhJI j .Jj...ljail JJU^-JI , jjtLilJ absorbance ^'j ^ ti ^i .~~~vi 1^31 • 

.ran 420 ^ 

\jSl .jj ij . ^> 11 jj^aLbiilLoJ 1 O'^l ^3 JjJJ (cjLu Ja-a. A_i-u o tdJ^J ' d I i "' jjLll JjJLa all ^jLuJl laajl j i ^>- .5 



:<j_>UI (ji jj^Maj^LuMJ J-il&JI ujj^" J?-' O- 4 



,4 
(52) B(ppm) = ppm B [^AM ^mI ,>) 



FT/ 



(J-) u ^l^'..-ll L> l<H r? -l l = ^ :<jl 

^ j jj u^Jl J JC <(£ j^'"' aj-d AjIjj) Jji vaJl 



113 



> M^iyW f LdJI j4J^ pr\<y^ ^ib^s 2.9.6 

.( alalia jjLlli o3j ^^li dlJ.aU .11 J -j- .^.. ■;-■■) fLkial SjSi^l Jf^JJ <J-" ^f_^= W^>' "^1 'SiJ^' ^JJ^' 

(Kausar e/ a/., 1990; Rashid et al, 1994; aA=-LJ1 j^j .^^Jd^, Jjjj j.^iiU <JjU^ Jk^ 
J\ i^ .Poniiamperuma e/ a/. (1981) jJLJJ . «^ .H HC1 JjL^ ^L Rashid et al., 1997) 

.a*li£jf^ij -Jj tl ,^.~alj .j'Uj aa^ ,11 HC1 <3j_>1= J J dj .J<fl j J\./Sfl , ,j?ll 

alraaJI J^iiwaJI .1 

(C 17 H 12 NNa O s S 2 )H- u^j jl JjK^.o 

.isjlJI ^(^iLJI , 1 .11 ,^j^.M ^~ . ..M I JjIUI jjjjjaJI jj^ <ij_>L (ji I -<■ j ■ ~- • 

N 0.05 <(HC1) *Ldl j^JS (>a<La JjN* ..A 
- ? - I I J^ij Jja^^>I ,>LJI f LJI^i(%37 ,sp. gr. 1.19) . LJ/^ys^^. ^ J«4.14 ,_&iL 

.>3_J1 .LJL^iJ^JI 

.(^aLj^^jj^jj:! (jJI (j"2) Lu1^» <iU. <j_,s j_ 1 jj .1 



114 



(H— jjtjJyJJ jl 3SLj_>k LH^ 1 ) (J-ul-l&JI . lj 






,4 

(53) B(ppm) = ppm B (<_ > "■ l .y'l l ^'^'^1 1 ,jj) x 

FT/ 



(J-) u ^l^'..-ll L> l<H r? -l l = ^ :<jl 



115 



t^jXusJI 4j£IJlxJI j^oUixJI CaLJ^JulS 10.6 

(K <P ,N ij-^ Jj...j'jll iul jill j ■ ~l •- II ,jj J3l .--IjX.^-^i ,,-11 iul jiJI j, ~l'.- II ^11 oLiljiJI<i.La.ii,j 

*Li.j J Jjl \j /*-* L^J* ' *Lulijijl i_uaUaJI ^jLjj J *Li1jL3 ^^iSLiljj J » ■ ^l~- -H j -*" I fl*^ *Lm&l Jij J L^il J I 

j ■ ~l '-- II ^ LJH aiiJI t=j-l£sj iilJjJ <i>jl3 CWANA <lkia ^ ^j_>1]1 - l~- - oiK LJj .pH <jjUI i^ij-ia. 

.^IjjJI ■ aji<~l1 <jLofc J 'i J j' t* * "J' "\j (<jll=JI Jj .-U -H ^ Ijl .v.'Vl j Ijlji; jSSl ^ j* ■ - II <jul Jill 

rJJ a-i 1 -l,i^-. ..1 jS^fi VJ l^Vl Lindsay andNoivell (1978)<U=^i^l ^jJI DTPA jLuil ^.j 
(2.1 0.6 -■■■all ^ <ij^sjjjl AB -DTPA JIa) i>jiiJ1 ^jjilJ Uj^t <j_>UI jljja.1 _>^e "^ £* j u 1,1 -'' 11 

.Co ,Ni <C1 ,Mo j^slit ^ (j^aii 
DTPA^b^b 1.10.6 

(_£jjJI ^j ^-1 .-.1..VI . a iUII J iU 111 jl j -■. 

DTPA^^slUilujVI J>l*-3 .1 
diethylene triamine pentaacetic -*/./-; //^^-^ .../-^ Jj-^ ? ^ ? Ji. , ( ,? ^'^ :? o-^ 1.97 ^j • 
^Jtl? fj^KJ! j^IjJS '<> ^ 1.47] jl (CaCl 2 ) ^ j^^' 4-0.A<> £. L1 <PTPA) acirf 

J,jjj ^1 Jail ai ,jjj jl^a -II sLJLs jlj^JI tjjl j^j- (jJi (ji [YCaClo^HoO) ^^.jjj^JI 

■dlilj tTriethanolamine (TEAJ^/jj^/^JJi^-^J- 13.38) jl £_ 14.92 ^J^k^j • 

j . 9nn ^ ii j .. ^ ii J ua . ii , i . ii . . ? ,. i i j^i - 1 : - ^-7-" jjj,'" ^,'1 jiU.iu.iu. 
,1-ll^-jl^ll - ? ~.l l J-<1j ,JV6 - /- lljJ< ~.~ J jU . ; U : . All Jl % Jh pN I . ^ „ I ?J t jV • 
,M 0.1 TEA ,M 0.005 DTPA ^U^JI j^ U-.^ l j^L^ 3^^ ^^ ^^ .^LLJI 

.M0.1CaCl 2 

116 



DTPA L>a ^l ^1,,.V1 JjL, .^i^; ,,-11 iul Jill j.^l'.-ll Jj,,.Lall JaJU^-JI J- JI...I... j ^- 

ppm 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 :Zn ppm 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 :Fe 

ppm 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 :Mn ppm 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 :Cu 

JaaJI ^Ajjis 

.Jjs 125 <J i u jjl allljl JjjJjjJI (a-a 2) LuljJt 4iLJI •Lsjill (^jji ?■ 10 jjj .1 

.^jj^^L^i^j jL^-jjJ^ ^^AkiLi-u ajJ 4ij .DTPA^^MijtLuV' J^i^-a^ Jj= 20 ^L^il .2 

.Whatman No. 42 j^i.^ 43^ ^jia-JI ^j .3 
.(^jjjl (j^LuslaVLj (jSi»bJI JjlL^jJI jl^ iLLujj ^-^^ t> aj-^L^ Mn <Cu ,Fe ,Zn Jl ^ .4 

l J^J (Lix^jLLaJI >' > y^SJl 7" I Lbga all LauLaJLi-iij /ijijjl jj-aLbiilo J l_j a Uall J lLa 111 j' fl a J-liilij <l_j^l3 *-ij' 



:<j_>UI ^ tj^Ma^ujMJ 4JjI&JI (^jXusJI 4jjI JJUI jj-cUxJI CiLi^uLS Ja.1 (> 



,4 

(54) Zn, Fe, C«, orMn (ppm) = (ppm in extract- blank) x 

FT/ 



(J ^„U~..,JI JOI r? ^l l = .4 :<jl 

(£■ ) LuljA <iLJI <jjUI jjjj = IT 7 / 

( _^_ > liUI (jjLu^l chelating agent .-■lv J ...<K.j<n ^ <jjUI ^ ^jLlJI ^ jjj'j^' S^ _>^^ -1 
7.3 pH <L^,j^ <a.jj j^ DTPA ^ U'..N 1 JjL^l <^j -DTPA ^ U~..N 1 JjU J 



117 



DTPA-^^aVI OlJ^jSLu 43Ljjb 2.10.6 

^j_>lJI (ji a^Liila iulji j^sLk; jjS& (ji (AB-DTPA) DTP A— ij-iijjsal "^'j.'j^j' <ij>i= ■.,i^~,,.~ 



Soltanpour and Jj3 (> jju L^i oil ^ ,Soltanpour and Schwab (1977) UjjL j3j i>jlUI 
oUjjjiu ^ M 1 ^^.M ^'...vi JjU ~ ^Xj-.^Utj .jj^^l (j^jill -i,^'...! *U$ Workman (1979) 
K ,P ,N0 3 -N j*S& (jiuj ,7.6 pH Ujj j^ <Jj*-J1 DTPA ^M0. 005 ,(NH 4 HC0 3 ) ^j^l 

^ u^je J? uU"^ v <^ L -^ JI J t^' J "^ Cu < Mn < Fe < Zn J^ (> DTPA <i;>j <K jj 
j"*j* 1 L" * * 'r~ j ^^ J ^"> 'j - * j i ^j ,^>i' oLjjjjS-u jLiIi.1 *,*^~ . .■wJ-iyM <D 1PA jLiIi.1 a<i > , ,.l , ,.~. llj ^j^Jl 

.jjJIjUl j^k <K <P .^ji.^fld, it 'till j. ~t:. II J -J ^ 

.(_£jJJ1 ^j ^ "- '-^l . a iLII J iU til jl j --. 

.ran 420 3 880 ^ JjL j^ ^LiaiJ ^^lia jjlJL ^ °jU II jjUiil jL^ 

. k _ i $lJLs (J -LlkJ1 JjU'll jl (j ^ 

Extracting Solution (j^^UilujVI J^^- 3 ■' 

^.M 0.005 DTP A ^u -Jr j j. — 11 ^ua-11 ,LJI j> J* 800 ^Jl DTPA <> £_ 1.97 .JuJ 

JJ£ (j'jjiJI f-i-^J tJ^J 1 -^' *t-J-a£ J ' (j ■■■*!! (NH4OH) 1 : 1 j*.j-iJj-a¥l &!e(-a ,jj Jjs 2 jjlji. . a . J. 1 

■'■ijj^-'iil x_a (NH4HCO3) ijtJjwy/ lzi Lj-ijJZLi ^ £■ 79.06 . a . ^.1 ,DTPA -i~- . . ,j,'u Laj^ 

- I - II ■ j"> 1 - ~ - II Jjl^- ~1l ■ " ; *.jS.jJtfl t -,LI ~n fi ^1 pH tsyj JlK^ JjI^- ~1l ■ .ji'u *' ■ aUI . 

..— AiJL^jl Oj\JLi >U3^ jl 4 vjIiLlo <Lal JiLi_ul ^3^-" *j * 

j^iuj^idl jjjSjJ iajJi J^-L^-a . t_a 
v j1 ^ .^LJI ,LJI ^^250 ^[(NH4) 6 Mo 7 024.4H20]^ J ^ J M.S / /o/j : i-iiM.(> t 12 v^ 

118 



antimony potassium tartarate ^ \j ._. r&t ^j^kijiJ! ^IjLjL ^y £0.2908 

4- I - j (_a d IJ. a - 1 j Ua . II „ LaJL ^j -j~ ■ I II ">H J-aSl u i^-ili J_la. J^ ■ ~» ■ U-a ^ iljU .11 rjjl '(j^J 

. jjL j jJlLa jjKa ^ pyrex o-^j^ 

jljtl ^J^J .jjiuJ^iJI jj'a'l AjiaJ/ Jjb-e {y Jjs 140 ^1 ''^J 1 ^- "^.j -' - - (j^ £ 0.739 tJuil 

.<^Lu 24 ,jj jSsi dU.&-» iiilial ijaj ■ .IUII j^t JjU .11 I jj» 

(H 2 N2H2.H 2 S04)^l J j^lc.ljj J jiJ ffc VlJ^laJ -J 

i^Jl J-a^j ^jUa^ti ^LJI ^ J_a 750 ^^J f 130. 12 ^^Jj^sJl Oj^O U^jU J ^-^^ L ^^J^'f' ^7 "-"^ 

***** 

jjjj *^ *^ fe-J] aj ' uj'^ ■*■ ^^ J-a 22.5 i^jLiiilL ^jjljjj^Jl ^lIjjjS t^yi ^_i_uLiJ iJijli_o j-lJzls*. 

. y^_ilil *CLuj aj-d LL.L ijjl-^ *'' a J_4 a ^ . JajLaJl v LaJL 

(CuS0 4 .5H 2 0) LHJ laJJI oIjjjjSJ fi\ JjN* ..A 

<>LJI ,LJI o- J* 800 ^i (249.68 ^Ijj^JI jj^) - LJ/^^L^^^J/ ^Ly^cy £_ 3.9 v jl 

.IjA^-r jjsl -jUa .11 sLJLs jiJ^I - -■• -■ II J-aSj 
eLaJL y-±J ,*^ "• f-J] AJl tj^li—o (j-° J-° 6-25 ■ a »a^. ~« ^j ,.1~. \I1 ^Uj^iS ^y ^_i_u1_l5 J^ii-o j ■ ^-* 

J Ua . I I 

iV1.5 .(NaOH) f^jjjaAJI oIpUJ ^Vl JjN* . j 

- -■• -■ II J-aSj < J_>J -jUa .11 f LaJ| ^ Jji500 ^(40.0 ^jjjaJI (jjjJI) AJ^Jj-^JI LZilf La {y £■ 60 tjjl 

. Ijja.rj-al -j 1 "' -II fLJL jlJ^I 

iXJ * ^ "• I] ij I uj ^Q^ J-* 200 ■ a >a^~« (JVC/. J ) Aj_)Jj_bAjl oUI-fi^^f— . i-uLli Jjlij uii 

,>a^JI ,UL 

(jjLaii-1) -N ^y I 0.25 ,(172.21 j^lij^JI jj^') sulfanilamide j^J J^iMj^^y h 5 . a. ^.1 
N-(l-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine ^^.jjj^J! i^Lu j^Ij^ ^J ^tS u^J 
• il jjj i --j m j~~~ ^ Jj 50 Ja.ij . a. ^.1 ii jUa^il f LJI ,jj Jj 300 ^1 dihydrochloride 
J J vKJ i .,..i v ILil,.>j J U .11 l> ^l.^l-^^j J- 500 ^11 r? ^i l j.<1 ,4,^=^1^ /85(H 3 P0 4 ) 

■(Jj-^jfl O^ Jj*^ ^ "Lai Jiiujl 

119 



.N0 3 -Nppm3 ,2.5 ,2.0 ,1.5 ,1.0 ,0.5 ,0 ^jj^-L^LiS JJL^ j^. 

.Pppm3 ,2.5 ,2.0 ,1.5 ,1.0 ,0.5 ,0 yjjj^^LjS JJL^^^ 

.Kppm 10 .5 .0 c j J -^~jj..,La JjlU . J . A- 

.ppm5.0 ,4.0 ,3.0 ,2.0 ,1.0 ,0 :Fe jjj^JI • 

.ppm,4.0 ,3.0 ,2.0 ,1.0 ,0 iCu^laJJI • 

.ppm2.5 ,1.5 ,1.0 ,0 :Mn^jJJuidl • 

.ppm 1.0 ,0.8 ,0.6 ,0.4 ,0.2 ,0 :Znd^jJI • 

J^xJI ^Ajjis 

OoMalLuVI 3<Lijb -1 

J ai^-a (jj J-a 20 ■ a . .1.1 . J_a 125 <i- ■■■ Lf Lj_ > ijs jjjJ (j-lj (?-* 2) Lpljjt 4iLJI •Ljlll ^ ?■ 10 jj 

l5j1jJ.11 oll-sj *-a iLiil.11/ SjjJ 180 jk; <Sj3j 15 aJ-J (_£JJj^ Pj jlj 7 (jJ^ TTj -Q^ 1 .V" 'lV 1 

.Whatman No. 42 ^ajIjS <3jj? .-.l ,,-U~..,Jl ^_ 1 i 1J .<^j2h> 

(^jljiJJI-CijjJ .2 
CsLu viiJ f— uLii uj ^o^ J-* 3 ■ a ■ ^.' ,J-a 25 <a_i_u j Lili.1 l_jj_ij1 ^Jl <jjIJ1 [j-£iiiILi_i±A lj-* J-* 1 J^jI 
oIpLj ^ i nlj'i JjU n ,jj Jji 3 \j„'j l j' 1 'fl I* CatjjjjSJ (j-^Lj3 Jjl^-a ljj Jjs 2 tJuil jljjjL^jJI 
3 . a.^.1 , 1 j-^j^' *i <Sj3j 20 ijjJ (i°38) (jjLa -1 -- Jt jiuij ' J^?- JjIU^JI r j-^1 ■» 4JJ iusJI 

LJ^lJb .j,\b I 1 JM.Vsli jl^ ,ji mn 540 <^.j-a Jjl= jjt ^^.1 .^.i.V1 ]j&\ ,<Ij3j 20 ajJ iijAJI 

.(Kamphake et cd., 1967) 



120 



*j alaj ijj'~- a ^y* J^ 2.5 4-)LiA-3 i a ■ al . JajLaJl e LaJl ^.a J^ 10 ~-* <j >ljl ^j *>1^~ ■ ljj ^.a J^ 1 ■ aa~> 

.jjjlJLi ^ iji- H JjU'H jL^. J,^~..,l. mn 880 ^ JjL ^aj Uijt jjlJl 

i^oujlj^jJI .4 

J »1~. ~I1 jl j -■■ jl ' tAULi -ftivta 1* J i U * II jl j -■■ ^J-j^^ (2p LaJ ^j>^' .-.I .^.1 ^* . ... i -j ' i ■■I'j'll jj3 
.hollow cathode lamp -jj-^j,' 11 ^^ ^ -j^C 1 .""" ^.^'■■■i-^y-'l' ^lualaVLi jifo 1' 

.extracting snlntinn L>a ^l ^i,,N1 JjU a <jl .^.l.jj..,Lall JJL^JI j~- 

t^jXusJI 4jjIJJUI jj-cUxJI .5 
j-^- ■t^jJJ' lH^LusjuiVLi (jSuLJI Jjd^jJI jl4^ ^Ij^'imL JAJiUI Il> uUjJI <jjj^JI (( ±ljjj1 jj3 
.extracting snlntirm L>a ^l ^-..Nl JjU . Jil . J.l : j tl- -II -^j ~ T 1 J j ■ ■■< ja 11 JJL^JI 



: ^> LJ, L^ (^ J-" ~ ^J j' ^ <j J 



(55) -^^5 — N(ppm) = NO 3 — N (ppm in extract) x Dilution Factor 



'■'^■J^ ^ J^"^ 1 J^ t> 



(56) 


P (ppm) z 


= P (ppm in extract) x Dilution Factor 


:<jjlJI (ji a^ALutj^jJI J^.1 (2jji 


(57) 


K (ppm) '- 


= K (ppm in extract) x Dilution Factor 



121 



:<j_>UI ^ iJj\l^1\ 4jjI JJUI jj-cLJdl jJ ,> 



(58) Zn ; Fe ; Me, C« (ppm) = Zn, Fe, Me, Cu (ppm in extract) x Dilution Factor 



* tr-.^j lull aJ^aJ jj jLi_J_i_u 2 1 J aii_o />j\ij /jiuj . _ L^aL^Jl ^JN .V-.li * J_J 1 JrrY ^_J ali_o j jaj /jl ■_■ -^ * . 1 

.fijj s-J-^J' Jj£ V.O ^J] prl <ijJ iJJaj *J f^jJJ-aJl lIjjjJlj 

^i <LUJI JSVjJI jJji^L AB-DTPA <S^J^ -L^UI JJLjl, ^alaUl oliUJI j^ <^ - 2 

.9^1*11 



122 



oLuJI JjJ^j .7 

jl •(*■ ■">" (J^LiJ ^ £ jLi_a) *Li.jU3 *Liji_ij ^'^-* Cy* U *>1^~ ■ ■>*• [ -£ oLjLiljl ^_3 *Lul 1 jijl ._i.fi UaJI V__* .j [j-ullj 
• - ' s ' * t " ' -. 

. ^ jj V* uj ""^ ^ jj ' ' oL-uLiiU LujLoj l_w__- I J >~~> I Jj j 1 .l_i____V I .___*_■ j . LaLu <_!___ *l__1___ jI^-. <j-a 
j& Jiju <uk jL-j__V1 ^iiij _>a>^-JL> Lj-aS MjU~ total plant analysis Jill oLUI Jj u ~ _>^j 
^adequacy LIKJ! 3 ^deficiency ^.^//..l-il ^xJI ^ 4Jlal 11 j.^Jfll' J^j .<G_i-.L-J -__L-a)fL. 
N j.^'.-li Jill. Jj.*1 . . ...<. L-a ■ -j^ il jj.^u „ Jiu ajy.l.MH j , ~l •.. il j&ji^ excess sjLjJIj 

^j' ■ - ii ipljaJI j ■ ~i '- il oUjj^Kj B <P ^1 i_L--i)/Ls 
j Jones et al. (1991) £_=Jj &\±A\ Jj u ~ oULaJ -^...-til JiVjJ! J^a. .-.Mj.-.-iti ^ Jj>4s 

.Renter and Robinson(1986 ,1997) 



123 



C^jVI 1.7 

.(Van Schouwenberg and Walinge, 1973) iLLJI j_>k]l ^ -jj'^j- 11 

jAtdisJtCj^jU.1.7 

■ c ^ * jW^- 
■pH jL^-^l Jj^sj^ ^^i^Lj:! ijplia jL^. 



w/w 100 : 1 WJ (K 2 SO r Se) >^j hjK .1 

jS^aJI ((H2SO4) Cu^aSJI t_}2wLJi.L_a 

372.2 = (jlijaJI uj^J' <p,fc}J>usJ ^Lij EDTA^la .£ 

iVIO t (NaOH)^j^u=JI oIpU JjK * .j 

*ju!iaJI ((H3BO3) djj^jJI j^* ^ J^-L^-a . Jb 

N 0.01 ( (H 2 S04) CujjSJI o^u* JjN* .j 

.^wdJI ^i NH 4 -N£ 1.2 : ^LaJI ^1 JjN* . j 
124 



l3j^ 0"° d ^ ^ ' ^ c_S"^ ^-^^ <l_ila Jn ."■ ]£, i_4 yjujlj (*LuJ^J d\^. U **} lj_ii. dli^Ja-ajl oLlIJi <i_i£ r; \a\ . 1 

^1 V^.1 10 uiiLj tdJj j <£ 1 fl*^ ajil^JI <jjij ^*Liji_ij ■ **•'** »^ 4Liaj<ij-io <jjju oLjjc uii. <4_j^laJI jjuLi_lj .2 
Xj,i , ~ ^'j^j* ■ "M ■ x jjj^° ,_, ' I (j- ■■*■ aj spatula U ,,,> „ll ■UaLujj -.l'-j-ll • j~;- ^~ J3&1 ^^it s_>jjLi^s 

■ "-- -H ^ j_>j ii (2,jij ijjjUL i°60 aj'_v=>- i^-j-i JJt ifjjliJ' .-.I'ij^H . ai-. .3 

.Ja inn J. ,,. .., a.* . . j; -.1 ^JJ L^ jail £ I <iUJIiuLiiJUjLJI^( LJk i3)0.50 jl (»_«.) j_ 0.25 jj .4 

<1=Lujj JSl^JoJI Jj-jlLs>JI ,jj^ 3 (jJl^a. ^Jli^.1 ^ .jjLJjUl ajiruijJ ^jliiJI >a.a, (JJ ^^ £ ^ i -*>-^' -5 

J7 j jl (j -^ dUI , ,.j . 1 , h > — .-.l*i ii II j- jjil ,4_J1 <Li^jLa iljiXujL jSydJI CxjjjSjl tj ^* ** ,jj J-a 10 . a . J. 1 .6 

Jjji£l i LiiLa. uJjLial *_i*a u .i° 100 ijlj^. ia-jJ JJ£ dJLiSj 20 aj-i] - ■ ^ (j II jl (j -■• j-i ■ ■ i .1 '.V I « . J. .7 
J^ij-ajl \S waJI OJj-iSJl [j-^-a-i. [j-u&li lAJaJLi da , ,>~1 ^ <jjl_ii jl^o /^l ^.a L_j_ulijU 'Lil.i.ljjl ^.il^ajl 
*Li.j J ji^ j * ■ ^ fl I' j' fl -* I] L_j_ulij I ui^l aj (j-*j <.— SlS Js .t.«. .j i'Ni o L^jla-a yjjjIL tdjjj .L_j_ulij l_j 

^ >V 1 , ,. Z, h *l *. , ^ II JaSI i 3o0 4jl vi 

jl"» - II sLJL Jji 100 - -■• -■ II ^1 JaSlj <LtJ_>j -ly-l -■• ■ .j.l'.VI . .* -- . ^j II Jjl .r aL^I Liu .8 

4 oLiJ ^jij^- 1 ) J-JLi-aU Li.i.'j JjftLii L_j^j_lil (tf-1^ d ^J ' ^^ oLj-iaJl ^y* D3tCll <L^u Ji/_£^=JS (_j 1 l_^^-i .9 
*Lljl_li <lul J^i-'j L_j^j_lilj ^d > . .J iflj >i1 i^\d\n\ H.I ) 1 J\^yi i 0. 1 (jj) d > ^' > ^ >S ll jl^aU ^_i_ul_ii i_j^_iil 

. (internal reference JjU - i^Ui i^Li iijt) <j^Lj3 



10 ajJ j ■!-'* II Silaj j-- ■ (isjjjl j-i J*l,iK Ojjl ^ij^jL j-i Lai sjjIjl-iJI j j ■!-'* II ajj^a-l t-. i . J.1 . 1 

.iJ_o 100 <a_i_u yjJaijjl ,3j|j J ^1 L^JLj-ij «_j VaJl ^^ J-* 10 *Li-fiLajl 



125 



SjjlxaJI JI^a l-,^~.-- A'" 0.01 H2SO4 JjU -■ 5.0 pH L±.jA (jJI ^jUa~il ajLJI jjL. .6 

J^ 10 j JVlgO ^.a 9 0.2 *_o ^_i_ul_lijl ijJLjj_J - Ojjl <j-* J-* 10 (tf-1^ yilajLj *LlLa£ Ji jCJ~~* ~ L — 1 - aJ -7 
AJJJJ^I— Ojjl <J J La aJ JlJyij_Ljjl d Lm: ^JlJ^J ' ' a * \j& .JVlgO ^.a 9 0.2 *_o JajLaJl e LaJl ^ys. 

jjtLii [jjjLui Jt <U^, ■- -II Jj...ljail EDTAijLJ J ^'...Vl i > , ,.v jJajj .jiifl j^Lc /98 ■ ..I jail 

. J&l J* %97 _> blank reagent JJU-JJ 



LiiJI (jSjJLuwJI CajjV jljjJu-ul ^iijUl j\,ii'\\\ 



(59) % Recovery 



(V-B) y N y 7^.07 x 7tW 



C *D 



(J.) d-, r IU j; U ,^i, >!! (;-.. ,J I 7V0 Ql N 2 Sin 4 JjU ..„ = K :jlC 

.H 2 S0 4 Jji^ <^Uii = JV 
(J*) ^L^' NH 4 -N JjL^ ^ = C 



LjUI edta ji j^lj ^ iijUi Jj,,.mi 



(V-Bj) * N* Ry- 186.1 y 100 
(60) % Recovery = 



126 



jLlJI ^ CajjMJ ilj^iaJI Jninll 



(V-Bj) * N* R* 14.01 * ;oO 
(61) %N= 



Wt 2 y 1000 



111 



j tUa 11 1 Jji.LaJl i^iJl ^_u j *t a j , A ^ ^ ll <j_iaJJ re-l^J' ^a^aJl ^^H^ *LllxlaJ1 — Jt ImI Cu 

(t) EDTAojj = ^ 
.EDTAijU^KJI^jjJI = 186.1 



t^Sj&X Ci^yxs 2.1.7 

H . * * * * H ' 

* . ^* *d a »jl->^ V^ *!' _L_iLaJI i_jl_i£^l rloOo -rlo^O^ ^y* kjVu 4_ijl_iijl jl^-ajl <lola_o el V^] LuJ-i-r" i^3l 

.(McGill and Figueiredo, 1993) otLiJI j ^.jUI ^ JaI jKJI ojjl <1j_>U <Ui-> 

%30 ((H2O2) ((-1*a.ujSVi *Ldl) tjo^ijjj^l jjujjSI Jji.o 

.J^ 100 <i- ■ ■ • - ■ ^ * ■ ■ j^'-i ^1 4iLJI <jjL±1J1 sjLJI ,jj £■ 0.5 jj .1 
.ljja.«La.jjl <jSjaJI CxijiSAi u2m^i. ,jj J-a 5 ^LJjUI ajiruuJ ^jliiJI _>^a, ^a jJ=3 4-3 ^Jl^.1 .2 

.JjJJI Jljk^l .3 

.1° 150- 100 iliJa-aijI^^oLa-jJ JJ£ - ■ ^(j il jl{ -^ ^ ^ ■ ■• .4 

."/oSOjjj^jjij^JI 

- .-^j II jl(j -■• a <Sj3j 60—30 (^jjj rjl^TSaJj] tj_uLjVl ^ ■ ■• .6 

.%30 (jj^ ajJ-i^JI jjujjSI (3^ (j-* J^ ^ i-iuii ai u.uL>Vl j^ .7 

■ f,°280 [J la. ^ i ^(j I I Jl^a. aj^a. ^jj gijl .8 

.j*°280aj^1 J^^JjlOajJ^-uL&lo^ -9 

.^jlJj 10 ajjj L$iij-uj <%30 (JJA fljJJ^JI JJtulSI 3-3* J^ 2 ' °' ■-■' *i itj-uljal -i_>J-10 

^ »^ . .^Il ^a iAjLSj 10 uiAj ' > a' ' ^ J^ii—aJl jJ-U ~-* 10 j 9 ^Jj^JaiJl Jl£,\ . 1 1 

.>LJI ,UL J« 100 ^Jl r ? - I I J^j , Jji=-J' ^-12 

jLji-j-ujiJI [JjjLiS (ji^j Lai . yJaijJI 3sLi jku -j ■ ■■■{ -H Jjla— Jl li* (_i ojjVI ^jj"~- ~ (j-J-i3 ^^ -■ 
,jj I (g » ■ >» j Lai ^Whatman No. 1 J\ 5 ~- j —j~ iaj^ -j"^ -^ Jji=^JI ~-j--j~ l^u <4^ aJJI ^AjjkJLi 
JaIjK - ^* <1->_>13 £-* ^j Jiio Pj N ^j^naiJI g^tu J^_hj . Murphy and Riley (1962) Jj3 

d > , ,.1 >a! 1 

128 



i ji2J\d^\ 3.1.7 

(Buresh et al., .-.jj^OIj ^ijlj. ..jil . ..H ^ ^~- ^ sCj-* l*^ SP^^' a jLJI - ^ * ^^ iL)_>k]1 ajjt jjiLS 

.1982) 

(j^iiLa, <jj w/v %2.5 (jJt jSjaJI H2SO4 (jj^kij) Cu^jSJI -cLlL li jjJ I liJ I (j^iiLa, ^JJ^J .1 

.(djlxuAjJludl 
.j^Sj^JI <~>jj^ti j ■■>-- ^j- j'j 1 2.5 ^i ^CyHgOg) w Ai//i*LAjjJi<ji// t> Aija. ( jj £■ 62.5 ^jjl 

w/w 100 : 1 £ju^JI (K 2 SQ 4 -Se)>^ H'K.o 

CsIj^Jj <(Na 2 S2°3- 5H 2 ) ^J^usJI CsCujjS^jj .£ 

372.2 = ^lijaJI uj>H '(^J^ 1 ^LuEDTA^tia . j 

JuLij ,-ILa. ijiijJl ^y* <i_Lua Jl *La^Lj <l_il3 Jn .~- ]£, LiyJuilj M »^ J ^ * oLiiJl <i_l£ 7T V*' -1 

. d i i < *1 ^ \ ^ 

^1 V^.1 10 uiiLj tdJ^j if 1 a,j_i.l^jl <jjij ^*LijLij k^jLljc auiaJ <1laa ii^iLi oLij^ uii. ^ii^laJI , *», * ^ ~ ' .2 
* j " ■ ~ <i »*c .~ . . .M . ijjjLa ^j l (ji . Xj Ji spatula t-. , ..i .11 <iU , ,,lj. .-.h .- 11 . ■ ., -. ^ „ js^l Jt * j « , ^ 

■ "^ -H ^i Laj^j ai ,jjj ijjjULs i°60 sjl_ > ^.ii.jj jjt i;jJ^J' .-.hj-.ll . ai-. .3 

.J* 250 <i^ -.a.* VJ J ^JJ LuS Jail ^ ,<iUJI iy 1 ^' SjLJ ' t> (a*- 3 ) 0.50 jl (^^) j_ 0.25 jj .4 

J^ «l a ,,-tl ,. Ulj ill J-j-iAJ i_:jAij I jjJj I -*' ■ ' '"~\ V>'^ l^'UMiV 'ull' 'li* jj ^* ** fJJJ-* (j-* J-* 20 . a . J. 1 .5 

.(C si-lj 4 >ia ^_u yjjjIJl ^1 ya.1 *_o si^l j I (j-ii^Li-u aj-aJ «_jVJI td iil aj ^*LijLiijl <i_uJI L_j^_iil ^_il^_a. 
._akls jjj ii (l _ijjiVl ^jjli-a (jJI jLJI Jjj1= *-a3 _>jt a^jj^uaJI Catjj^^jL^ ^jj ,j.a £ 2.5 tJuil .6 

. J-ilJI Jl^k <& iil aj 0-°J '* ^yy 1. 



129 



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. (internal reference J ji— - ij-^LiS <_uLi iijt) <j^Lj3 iuL: 

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j ■!-'* II <LlLa£i 
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.nm 420 <^j-JI JjL f^jiJI jl ^'j^'i ^ °j>- n jjU'H jl^a. 

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138 



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(67) 


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FT/ 



140 



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Kalra, J. P. (ed). 1998. Handbook of reference methods for plant analysis. Soil and Plant 

Analysis Council, Athens, GA, USA. 
Mortvedt, J. J., F. R. Cox, L. M. Shuman, andR.M. Welch (ed.). 1991. Micronutrients in 

agriculture, 2nd ed. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 
Mortvedt, J. J., P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay. 1972. Micronutrients in agriculture. 

Soil Sci. Soc. Amer, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 
Peck, T. R. (ed.). 1977. Soil testing: Correlating and interpreting the analytical results. 

Amer. Soc. Agrono., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 
Smith, K. A. (ed.). 1996. Soil analysis: Modern instrumental techniques, 2nd ed. Marcel 

Dekker, New York, USA. 
Smith, K. A., and C. E. Mullins (ed.). 1996. Soil analysis: Physical methods. Marcel 

Dekker, New York, USA. 
Sparks, D. L. (ed.). 1996. Methods of soil analysis: Part 3 - Chemical methods. Soil Sci. 

Soc. Amer, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 



153 



Sumner, E. M. (ed). 1999. Handbook of soil science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 
USA. 

Peverill, K. I., L. A. Sparrow, and D. J. Renter (ed.). 1999. Soil analysis: An interpreta- 
tion manual. CSIRO Publishing, Collingswood, Victoria, Australia. 

Weaver, R. W. (ed.). 1994. Methods of soil analysis: Part 2 - Microbiological and bio- 
logical properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 



154 



aljL-aiikVI .1 ^3-^laJI 



UJ. 



3^ji J^bji 



g f.'> ni ^ 

mg ^1^ cm yuj- ,,. 

jug H>j^ mm ^ 



)"""ft 



^SjjJI C MaVl ^> 



mg/L 


iZLsJJi ^_a L_jlXijl ^^ C J>* " 


dS 




i " * * « ^ 


meq/L 


j~.1ll a. .1,'iJI ^~ ' il<»ill - 


mS 




i " * * 11^ 






jLlS 

mS cm" 1 


,jiM>iJiiijjSas 




p^ll 


■ = dS m" 1 = Siri" 1 x 10 


L 


JV 






mScnr 1 x o.l = Snr 1 


mL 








4aLluaJI 


°C 




ha 
da 
du 

A 




Decare jj£>j 

Dvmums (jjuajjjj 

Acre jlji 


AAS 


'O 1 ' 1 " J "' .«*»VI , a,UIIJ,U~ll 


OM 




j 'j'^ '' ajLdl 


CEC 


oljjjjlill <a!jLll11 <a_i_JI 


sp.gr 




J ir j 'ill J al'KII 


SAR 


ft^s_i 1 _l - aj 1 i ajbi a_i^Jl *L±j_uj 


pHs 


<JL1 


.7. Jl J*. .,,11 ipHs J, j i 


F.Pfi d. . .V. .11 J*..^.1I J „U-...- a 1 . f ,l .jjOl J >lalMl 


ESP 


J.ll l~ aII ~J**J ,^-s1l d ij I A ll 4 I , ,All 






nm 




( Jjla ilijj jlajilj 



155 



Non-SI 



aUajJI Cs1.1iJJ SI j-l_JJ-l' aUajJI oliaj Jj^sj Jjl^je 2 j- <- " 



1 jjaxJI ■"•' '^ J JjJ""' 1 


1 jjaxJI 




2 jjaxJI 


Cal di a J J J "• "* * 


2 jjaxJI 




SI Cj'ii&J 


i 


tlOIl SI Csl^iJ 








J^JI 








1.609 




mi ,J^ 




(10 3 m) km .j^jL£ 


0.621 


0.914 




yd .ajjLj 




m .jla 


1.094 


0.304 




ft .jiji 




m .jla 


3.28 


1.0 




micron .jjjj^ 




(10- 6 m)imi .jjjj^ 


1.0 


25.4 




in 1^35: 




(10" 3 m) mm .jiaJL 


3.94 x IO 2 


0.1 




A ?J >^I 




(10 s m) nm .j^jiU 


10 






a^Uu^ji 








0.405 




Acre ,,j1.ii 




ha ,jL^s 


2.47 


4.05 x 10-3 




Acre ,,jlii 


(10 


3 m) 2 km 2 ,j.j_^ j^jL£ 


247 


2.590 




mi 2 .jjjjJjj 


(10 


3 m) 2 km 2 ,j.j_^ J^ji-f 


0.386 


4.05 x 103 




Acre ,,jlii 




m2 'ti>* J" 


2.47 x 10^ 


9.29 x 10-2 




ft 2 (ijujj i.ii 




m2 'ti>" J" 


10.76 


645 




in (4*_1«1 <Ll-£SJJ 


(io- 


3 m 2 ) mm 2 <j-a^ j^H* 


1.55 xio 3 






jXiaJI 








102.8 




A ere- inch .i^jj-^lji 




nn ■ '«^~ ■" - 


9.73 x 10-3 


2.83 x lO 2 




ft 3 ■ ■*< - i.ii 




m ■ '«^~ ■" - 


35.3 


1.64 x 10-5 




in d *«^- ^^^ 




m ■ '«^~ ■" - 


6.10 x 10 4 


28.3 




ft 3 ■ .*^~ i.ii 




(10 3 m 3 )L ,jiJ 


3.53 x IO 2 


3.78 




gallon .ijjJLt 




(10 3 m 3 )L ,jiJ 


0.265 


2.96 x 10-2 




oz ,(j;l^) u ^j1 




(10 3 m 3 )L ,jiJ 


33.78 


0.473 




pt .(JILj)cijiLJI 




(10 3 m 3 )L ,jiJ 


2.11 






U&J1 








454 




lb ,J^j 




(10- 3 kg)g ? l^ 


2.20 x 10 3 


28.4 




oz (avdp) i( jjij1 




(10- 3 kg)g ? l^ 


3.52 x IO 2 


0.454 




lb ,J^j 




kg ? I^jL£ 


2.205 


100 




q<(^)j^ 




kg .jJ^ljLS 


0.01 


907 




ton ,(2000 lb) , U L 




kg ? I^jL£ 


1.10 xio 3 


0.907 




ton ,(U.S.) , U L 




(tonne) ,Mg .Jjiliia 


1.102 


0.907 




ton ,(U.S.) , U L 




(tonne) ,t ,JL, 


1.102 



156 



2 (fl-ilaJI ^jj * ^^ 





JjjtaJljaJiJI 






1.12 


lb acre 1 .^IjMj JLj 


Kg ha" 1 .jl^JLj.l^jLS 


0.893 


9.35 


gallon acre 1 .jjljjJlj^jJLt 


L ha 1 .jl^JL^J 


0.107 


1.12 xio 3 


lb acre 1 .^IjMj JLj 


tha 1 .jl^JL^L 


893 


1.12 xio 3 


lb acre 1 .^IjMj JLj 


Mgha 1 .ji"^!. .Lau^. 


893 


2.24 


ton acre 1 .^\^L (2000 lb) L 


Mgha- 1 .ji^jii. .Lau^. 


0.446 




JaiJJI 






0.101 


tSJf-" 


(10 6 Pa)MPa,J^L?l^- 


9.90 


0.1 


bar ,jL 


(10 6 Pa)MPa,J^L?l^- 


10 


1.00 


o rtn- 3 . ..C.ll .-..-■...J, .1 .A 


Mg cm 3 ,,_m<UI j^JLi iljiliia 


1.00 


47.9 


lbft-2 .^j.iJ ^.iiJLJLj 


Pa ,Jl£Jj 


2.09 x 10 -2 


6.90 x 10 3 


lb in -2 ,iu£JI ii^sjJLi JLj 


Pa ,Jl£Jj 


1.45 x 10" 4 




Sjl jaJI Jay J 






i.oo(°c+: 


173) °C .iyla 


K, l >K 


(K -273) 1.00 


5/9(°F 


- 32 °F ,cijt+i_>4i 


(_.. (Jj j_m 


(9/5)°C+32 




^oiJsLiiaJI JLa-aJI <?L>j$£J1 <EC 


; a^a-ij^iJl a_JsQJl 




0.1 


mmlin mi' .". .V. ... /Jj . .11 . 


S III -j"^l J U ""' L ' " 


10 


10 4 


G , u jjLcl 


T,iL^ 


10 4 




fLaJI (j-uLJS 1 iaj 




102.8 


a ere -in .oL*»jj-,j1.ii 


m • '* " S" " 


9.73 x lO 3 


101.9 


ft 3 S _1 .iuli/ijuia »jji 


m 3 ll _1 .itLJI/^jnia jla 


9.81 x lO 3 


0.227 


gal min 1 ,iijijJL /U.S. oUjJUl 


m 3 ll _1 .itLJI/^jnia jla 


4.40 


0.123 


acre-fl ,ijj-,jlii 


ha-m .j^-jl^s 


8.11 


1.03 x lO 2 


acre-fl ,ijj-,jlii 


ha-m .j^-jl^s 


97.28 


12.33 


acre-fl ,ijj-,jlii 


lia-rm .-..-■.. .^ \-.< *. 


8.1 x 10" 2 










j^ 1 






1 


meqlOOg 1 ,-J^lOO J£l^iK„,IL 


cmolkg" 1 ,JjiLji£. J5JJ 


„Siu* 1 










(oUj-iU iiLLill <"• ■■■II) 


10 


°/o ( <Ljjl*JI J u...'.H 


gkg- 1 .^Jf/^y, 0.1 


1 


ppm .jjjjLJL *ja. 


mg kg" 1 ^jlJA/^j^I* 1 




CiLuJI » a j'"** 11 jiyeLJaJl J.y&j 




0.437 


PtO^ -jj rt. ..J^ll * ' ■ ..^l 


P 'jji^ji' 


2.29 


0.830 


Js-tO • * i Li 'i * . . .xi 


K * j L ■ ^"j '" 


1.20 


0.715 


CaO ,ij^Jl£ll - ■ ■ -<1 


Pa .. J1 ...i<rii 


1.39 


0.602 


MgO .ijj^jJiJI '_■ ■ -<1 


Mg .^jjjjiiJ 


1.66 



Tekalign et al. (1991) :j, 



157 



3-uLia.jSLll jj-cUxIJ t£jJJI uJS^ <i£j*M j*^,>" ' j- 3 ^' ■ ^ (3^-laJI 

Actinium -jj'-j*^ 

Aluminium **iiJiri 

Americium ajj^j^J 

Antimony jj - : "'J 

Argon yjAj 

Aresnic ^j0> 

Asatine (jjjIi-J 

Barium ajjjLi 

Berkeliom *jJ£jj 

Beryllium ajJ;^ 

Bismuth o j^ 

Boron ^jj^ 

Bromine ijjj 

Cadmium * j^j!^ 

^« Calsium *j^Jl^ 

Cf Californium ij^j^iJl^ 

Carbon ^jj^ 

Cerium *jej^u 

Cesium *jj^u 

Chlorine jjK 

Chromium ^ jjS 

Cobalt ^JLjS 

Copper (^LJI 

Curium * jjjjS 



UJ^' 


fSjlt 


>^J1 


j.^*««» 


uj^' 


(JjJI 


>^J1 


tfjijl 


t^jiJI 






t^jiJl 


t^jiJI 




72.59 


32 


Ge 


Germanium ^.jA^ja. 


227 


89 


Ac 


196.967 


79 


Au 


Gold jaj 


26.9815 


13 


Al 


178.49 


72 


Hf 


Hafnium * j^U 


234 


95 


Am 


4.0026 


2 


He 


Helium -jjj* 


121.75 


51 


Sb 


164.93 


67 


Ho 


Holmium ^ j^Aja 


39.948 


18 


Ar 


1.0079 


1 


H 


Hydrogen iJ ^.j J ^ji 


74.9216 


33 


As 


114.82 


49 


In 


Indium Ajjji 


210 


85 


At 


126.904 


53 


I 


iodine jjj 


137.34 


56 


Ba 


192.2 


77 


Ir 


Iridium *jjjjJ 


249 


97 


Bk 


55.847 


26 


Fe 


Iron jjji. 


9.0122 


4 


Be 


83.8 


36 


Kr 


Krypton ^Ji^J. 


208.98 


83 


BI 


138.91 


57 


La 


Lanthanum ^ jiLL7 


10.81 


5 


B 


257 


103 


Lr 


Lawrencium ^.j^jjl 


79.909 


35 


Br 


207.19 


82 


Pb 


Lead ^L^jJI 


112.4 


48 


Cd 


6.94 


3 


Li 


Lithium *j^J 


40.08 


20 


Ca 


174.97 


71 


Lu 


Lutetium * j^jJ 


251 


98 


Cf 


24.312 


12 


Mg 


Magnesium *jj3jL. 


12.011 


6 


C 


54.938 


25 


Mn 


Manganese 3^111. 


140.12 


58 


Ce 


258 


101 


Md 


Mendelevium -jj'j 1 .' '■- 


132.905 


55 


Cs 


200.59 


80 


Hg 


Mercury ^j 


35.453 


17 


CI 


95.94 


42 


Mo 


Molybdenum ^^Aj* 


51.996 


24 


Cr 


144.24 


60 


Nd 


Neodymium ^ j^jj^ 


58.9332 


27 


Co 


20.183 


10 


Ne 


Neon y jji 


63.54 


29 


Cu 


237 


93 


Np 


Neptunium * j^ji^ 


247 


96 


Cm 


58.71 


28 


Ni 


Nickel Jiii 


162.5 


66 


Dy 


92.906 


41 


Nb 


Niobium * j^j^ 


254 


99 


Es 


14.0067 


7 


N 


Nitrogen o jj,VI 


167.26 


68 


Er 


254 


102 


No 


NobeliuniijJjji 


151.96 


63 


Eu 


190.2 


76 


Os 


Osmium ij^^J 


25 


100 


Fm 


15.9994 


8 


O 


nvyc-m j ,~ ,.<1 


18.9984 


9 


F 


106.4 


46 


Pd 


Palladium *jejiLi 


233 


87 


Fr 


30.9738 


15 


P 


Phosphorus jji^ji 


157.25 


64 


Gd 


195.09 


78 


Pt 


Platinum .^iL 


69.72 


31 


Ga 



Dy Dysprosium * j^uj. 
*" Einsteinium *.j. 



\Jl 



Erbiuniij^J 

Europium ij^jjjy 

Fermium *j^.ji 

Fluorine jAi 

Francium ^ j^^i 

Gadolinium ^j^JjU. 

Gallium *jJli 



158 



3 (fl-ilaJI ^jj aj 









j^ainJI 



32.064 
180.948 

99 43 

127.6 52 

158.925 

204.37 

232.028 

168.934 

118.69 

47.9 

183.85 

238.03 

50.9412 

131.3 

173.04 

88.906 

65.37 

91.22 



16 

73 



65 
81 
90 
69 

50 
22 
74 
92 
23 
54 
70 
39 
30 
40 



S 
Ta 
Tc 
Te 
Tb 

n 

Th 

Tm 

Sn 

Ti 

W 

U 

V 

Xe 

Yb 

Y 

Zn 

Zr 



Sulfur oj^ 

Tantalum * jJHii 

Technetium -j •'■'■<" 



Tellurium 



fjejj^ 



Terbium 
Thallium 






Thorium 



fjjjj* 



Thulium *jJjj 

Tin _;■,' ■ ~° 

Titanium *j^l^ 

Tungsten ji^kn 

Uranium ijjiljjp 

Vanadium *jjjIjIj 

Xenon ^j 

Ytterbium *jjjj1J 

Yttrium * jj>1 

Zinc Aij 

Zirconium ^.j^^^j 



239 

209 

30.102 

140.907 

145 

231 

226 

222 

186.2 

102.905 

85.47 

101.07 

150.35 

44.956 

78.96 

28.086 

107.87 

22.9898 

87.62 



94 
84 
19 
59 
61 
91 
88 
86 
75 
45 
37 
44 
62 
21 
34 
14 
47 
11 
38 



Pu 

Po 

K 



Plutonium ^ j^jL 
Polonium * j^jJjj 
Potassium i j^uIjjj 
Pr Praseodymium i jjjjj jj^J jj 
Pm Promethium - j^j -j^ ■ 
Protactinium ■^■■■<" JJ ; 
Radium *jjjI j 
Radon ^j J j 
Rhenium * j^jj 
Rhodium ajjjjj 
Rubidium ijjj^jj 
Ruthenium *j^jj 
Samarium ijjjL.Lyu 
Scandium ijjjJiyu 

Selenium -jj'-j 1 -- 
stilimn jj-cj- 
SilverLAi 



Pa 

Ra 

Rn 

Re 

Rh 

Rb 

Ru 

Sm 

Sc 

Se 

Si 

Ag 

Na 

Sr 



Sodium *jej>-= 
Strontium *.j£ijJlJ 



Tekalign et al. (1991) :j, 



159 



JjJIaaJI jjSIjj .4 J^iaJI 



i_ijjXjJI 



jLusiiVI 



tllftjjl ajjjI 






M 



Molar , jij 






M 



Molal , JVj^ 






Formal , , !<■■*■ 






N 



Normal , ^-j^-U 



100 X^jljjJI oLs1_>£ J^ 



W/V, % - ? - II ^ jjJ,jlJ 4jjU1 J; ■■■'■II 

Weight per volume percent 



IOOjOJlJI ^^ Vol%orv/v% 



* -* -■ 1 I <j^_laJI d ■■■■'■!' 

Volume percent 



100 x v l jljl ^ wt % or w/w % 



^jj^jj <j^_laJ1 d ■..■'■!' 

Weight percent 



CLuJl [ r& aI JLilla j I L_jljLaJI ^y* , J* " 



ppm 



ppb 



Parts per milhon 



Parts per bilhon 



Tekalign et al. (1991) : ji^aJI 



160 



.3w4^jJI oli^JiJI o^X-i .5 t ^aiaJI 



f[jLjj$^ 1000000 = (..IjiJia 1000 = f\jL 1 (J.l.../ V 1.~ ) jJ^/jJ^Lj^ = ^i^^ Ot- 

lg= 1000 mg= 1,000,000 jug ppm = jLig/g (solid per liquid) 

jJ^. 0.0000001 = jl l>JJ^ 0.001 = f .l_ ) £j_ ) i^l (j,l.../ . / 1.^ ) J - J i/ J - J i JJ < r = j JJ l.il ; ,j. ? 

1 ug= 0.001 mg = 0.000001 g ppm = jliL/L (solid per liquid) 



J^ 1000 = ^LJ 1 

1 L = 1000 mL 



^jljUL JLj 1 = 2 x jjJjJL ^ 
ppm x 2 = 1 lbs/A 



^iJO.001 = J«l 
lmL = 0.001 L 



% = icr 4 x jj^iLJL, *y^. 
ppmx 10" 4 =% 



ppm = ug/mL (solid per liquid) 



J-100/fJ^l =%1 
%l = lgm/100ml 



ppm = mg/L (solid per liquid) 



ojJ-JL ,j^l0000 =%1 
%1 = 10,000 ppm 



161 






58 1.05 99.0 1042.0 17.45 4JAJI ^A^ 

67 0.90 28.3 255.0 (NH-0 15.0 fje^l ^L. 

81 1.19 38.0 451.6 12.4 .LJI jjli^A** 

35 1.16 50.0 577.5 28.8 jjlill ^A^ 



99.0 


1042.0 


17.45 


28.3 


255.0 (NH 3 ) 


15.0 


38.0 


451.6 


12.4 


50.0 


577.5 


28.8 


72.0 


1024.0 


16.2 


85.0 


1436.0 


44.0 


70.0 


1165.0 


11.6 


50.0 


762.7 


19.0 


96.0 


1742.0 


35.5 



62 1.42 72.0 1024.0 16.2 ojjVI ^A^ 

23 1.69 85.0 1436.0 44.0 j^>JI o^— 

86 1.66 70.0 1 165.0 1 1.6 ^jjKJI 3^ o^— 

53 1.53 50.0 762.7 19.0 ^^ >=.'.L. 

28 1.84 96.0 1742.0 35.5 o-^UI ^A^ 

Tekalign et al. (1991) : ji^aJI 



162 



, L^j ^jjjAaJI i^jjiaJI j 3jjjJI pH CaL^jXtaa • 7 ^^ioJI 



Indications Associated Conditions Soil pH 

jl JVlg jl Cci ^_£ i _pzJLi l ^^ <j sill ^jIaj ls^ 1 ^ (l*^ ^^-^ J * ' "" A ' ^ " '^ J**-* ^-^ tl>° J^' 

ti~ j A •— ' ^ \j i^"'^'' ^3-° *^jJLi- ^-m^J' ■ J-Lj-aLi— aJl ^< a1 «i > . ,rjK «i ^ ^j^ 6.5-5.5 

. Ja^U^JI ^ll^ ^jJUJI ^j-JI <> %100 ^1^ <^J «-JjLU1 «*^J1 7.5-6.5 

<jjll1 (e-fl fCaCO^ j ^=J1 ,jJ£J1 j.aJjj j^' J^ ■_■ j ■ ■ " j «_ioiijj ajli, idLl* 8.4-7.5 

^1 03. ^.a ^JLajl (CjI^^jAj 1 Jaj jlIaa 
j_uiLiajlj j j a ■ ■ <j a 1' ^j] .*LiljJajl u yjjl 

. 4_iJj_i-fl i^JUj *LsjIXa] .f^Jaj <j sill <sLlc u>uiij 

.Hach Company, USA (1992) :j j^aJ1 



163 





ojjJI ,J 4-i^.uaaJI a-jjfiU 4jjjJI jbiokl ,-S j,u2^j>.j 2^-^ • « ^^iaJI 


Hot Water 


DTPA NH 4 OAc AB-DTPA Olsen P jLj*dl 



B 


Zn, Cu 
Fe, Mn 


K,Mg 
Na, Ca 


NO3-N, P, K 

Zn, Cu, 
Fe, Mn 




4jJJt_«JI ■ ■ -^ '■* " 


10 


10 


5 


10 


2.5 


(i- ) iiaJ n>-="" 


20 


20 


25 


20 


50 




H 2 


0.005 M DTPA+ 

0.01MTEA+ 

O01MCaCl 2 

(pH7.3) 


WNH4OAC 
pH7.0 


WNH4HC0 3 + 

0.005 M DTPA 

(pH7.6) 


0.5 M 
NaHC0 3 
atpH8.5 


^j --■ y **■ ■■■<*! J_j_L=k_i 



5 120 5 15 


30 (tLi^V^j 


■ijjnj-ui jj^j ^^L^ 3 '^i £ -'- a i^J^ijJLia ijj 180 *Lc. j-iJii (^JJjjJ r J V j^ *o^" ■ 


"■* J J=" t^e- : ic-j— I' j g. jJi 



nm430 i&.jj 
(A-o^jj 1 ) 



AAS K&Na i^+JL 



P:iiijlJI 

Zn, Cu: AAS 
Fe, Mn 



nm 880 i&.jj 



iul jiJI 



B, 1-10 



Zn, 0.5-20 



K, 50-1000, 

Ca, 500-2000, 

Mg, 5-500, 

Na, 10-250; 



P, 2-100 

K, 5-750 

Zn, 0.5-35 



P, 2-200 






Better & Lindsay & Schollenberger & Soltanpour& Olsen et al 

Truog (1939) Novell (1978) Simon (1945) Schawb (1977) (1954) 



uLuJdl *_i yfijl 



(_£jjJ (j-aL-alaVLi ^lLII J lU" jL^i. — AAS 
(1992) oIjJIj IaJjA J^lU" ^ ..U . ijjj^ajjl 



164 



4_ijjJ JjJL^Li 3aliG,aJI CiLiLuJI o^ju j^loJjJ 4^1* JjVj -9 (J^iaJI 





^-jJlilJS 


t_>2ri^-j.a 


<LijjJI jbiikl 3sb_>b 


(jjjlaaJI ^ualnJI 


1.29< 


1.29-0.86 


0.86> 


Walkley-Black 


j 'j'^ '' ajLdl 




rvnTTl 










PPUL 






20< 


20-11 


11> 


AB-DTPA 


ojjVI 


15< 


15-8 


8> 


NaHC0 3 


jjk^jil] 


7< 


7-4 


4> 


AB-DTPA 




150< 


150-100 


100> 


NH 4 OAc 


i n \. 1 1 <1 * n \l\ 


120< 


120-60 


60> 


AB-DTPA 




1.0< 


1.0-0.5 


0.5> 


DTP A 


<*jl' 


1.5< 


1.5-1.0 


l.O 


AB-DTPA 




0.5< 


0.5-0.2 


0.2> 


DTP A 


LJ^jjLs^jJI 


0.5< 




0.2> 


AB-DTPA 




4.5< 




4.5> 


DTP A 


Jjjijl 


4.0< 


4.0-2.1 


2.0> 


AB-DTPA 




2.0< 


2.0-1.0 


l.O 


DTP A 


\_ua_Lajl 


1.8< 




1.8> 


AB-DTPA 




1.0< 


1.0-0.5 


0.5> 


Hot water 


Ojjl^ 1 


1.0< 


1.0-0.45 


0.45> 


HC1 





ijjjjj.Vl ol-ajj>i-u — AB ^JjJjsJl i j-^- — - j_uji_fii. jjaJ uJ-lLj tj-i-Lui u^-^ = DTP A 

FAO (1980); Soltanpour (1985); Ludwick (1995); Martens andLindsay (1990); Johnson and ijjL^ajJI 
Fixen (1990); Soil and Plant Analysis Council (1992); Matar et al. (1992). 



165 






50-25 siaJI <3 jj J. l'i . ..I I jjjiU. J t a 



100-50 



30-20 



25-15 jl ) <J_u_i_iJl ajl^ Jj£ l3 L?J * ' — ■ L^-j^Sj JLaJil ~-* oLil yiiJl i^ia (j-a 

25-15 .oLlJI 4^.3 (> ilHill jl iiiliJI ia^l Jy.,,.~ti j^ J\ J_>3 

30-20 oLiilJi^JI .l>.Vl J£ (^30 ,> jfl UJ» oljjLJI j> 

30-20 <-3 <> j-aiJI ^IS^ i5U jl jLiSjj yjj^l jUj^l jjLJiU.jl Jia 

50-40 sj^iijl J ? .^.IMI jljjVl JL^J jL*j>" jo^j'V JV j^ J^3 

jjjJaJIj (jAaaJl L^jj tu 4xjI JJtJI oLjJjAjJI 

50-40 t t-^j^ fr^ c^^^^^J 1 j-^ 1 jjl= 

200-50 li.j^V^^ 1 3'jJ^' jUj^Ujj 

Jones et al. (1971, 1991); Reuter and Robinson (1986); Tandon (1993) : ja^aJI 



166 



.oUii^JJI gjjjj JjlL^Ii flflli&aJI CiLiLuJI o^lXj i^Lt Jj"i f J .11 L ^iaJ 





4iL^JI qllojJI ,j ■ 


UljJUl 


jj-cUxJI jjSjj 






£*»>» 


^£ 


... % . 


t_>2ri^-J.J 


jiualnJLi ^aSb 


4-ul JJUI jj-cUxJI 


3.0< 


3.00-1.75 




1.74-1.25 


1.25> 


(Sy^ 2, vj^) °jj^' 


3.00< 


3.00-2.00 




1.99-1.50 


1.50> 


(S^£j V J^=") 


0.50< 


0.50-0.20 




0.19-0.15 


0.15> 


Ji*-"^' 


3.00< 


3.00-1.50 




1.49-1.25 


1.25> 


i n \. i i <1 ■> a_ljl 


0.50< 


0.50-0.20 




0.20> 




(^jLaj-Lii <«_a3) ij_Lj_LJLSji 


1.20< 


0.50-0.20 




0.30> 




( >&-£») 



0.50< 0.50-0.15 



0.1 5> 



0.40< 0.40-0.15 0.15> 

Ppni 

100< 100-25 24-5 



5> 






70< 



25< 



70-15 



25-5 



15> 



5> 



<*jl' 



L>" 



UUI 



.Walsh and Beaton (1973) :j.i^aJ 



167 







.- — j__ _ _j _ 




+* >^+* « 




a^jJ^uaJI <ixu±* 




3j^laJI ^ALIjjJI 


ECe 1 




^jjJI 


tj^jjLaJI 


4 


ibiaJI a^jj^uall 


-dS/m - 






(SAR) 




(ESP) 








15> 




15> 


4> 




<jJ_Ulls 


15> 




15> 


4< 




<^JL 


15< 




15< 


4> 




4_ljj_l-fl 


15< 




15< 


4< 


S?- 


. J tl 












« iiEce 1 



Bohn et al. (1985) : ja^aJI 
.4-ijjJI *l^ j-3 ^jjlia 4jjjJI 4^^Ia i-ioJtusj .13 ^JoJaJI 



\z&lij$SJ 4jJsLiJI) lajldl ^jj ajjUl fklji 



look 3j__^ 


hs* 


— dS/m 


3JjJA 


4jJU 


9.0< 


8.9-4.5 


4.4-2.5 


2.4-1.2 


1.2> 


9.5< 


9.4-4.8 


4.7-2.5 


2.4-1.3 


1.3> 


10.K 


10.0-5.1 


5.0-2.6 


2.5-1.4 


1.4> 


11. 5< 


11.4-5.8 


5.7-2.9 


2.8-1.5 


1.5> 






.»lVij_p jk* 1: 1^ EC 1 
.Hach Company (1992) ijj^aJI 



168 



3^^1all J^usL^-aJI <Ljjl&aJ 4jjujjjJI jjj^JI . 14 ^JoJaJ 



Jjm^JI ECe 1 


Jji^/ill ECe 1 


- dS/m - 


- dS/m - 


4jJJt Jju-cL^j 






(Sorghum sudanense) ^Ijj^JI LjUiJ^>. 


14.4 


(Leptochloa fused) Jljl^ iii^ia. 


22.0 


(Me die ago sativa) j ■ -* 
(Trifoliwn alexndrium) - j ■ •- ■ 


9.9 


(Hvnn/inn rinrfvlrm) Jn,. ..a.v...^.^ 


15.0 


10.3 


(Hordeum vulgare) jjj-^J '(j-ujjj 


13.5 


(Vigna ungidculata) °LjjJ 


7.0 


(Brassia campestris Jj^A 
Glauca group) 


14.0 


ibJaa, J^ujL^.j 






(Sbvknnin nnilent/i) < , . !. -1 


9.0 


(Hordeum vulgare) j^ulft ji 
(Beta vulgaris) ^ jl^ jjjjJ. 


18.0 


(Znrrhnnim nfTirmnnim) .<...« 3 


10.0 


15.0 


(Oryza sativa) jjJ&* jjt jj 


8.0 


(Gossypium hirsutum) jLl 


16.0 


(Zea mays) ijj 


6.0 


(Carthamus tinctorius) ji^t 


12.0 


(Linum usitatissimum) ^llS 


6.5 


(Helianthus annuus) ^^^JJi jLul 


14.0 


(Vigna ungidculata) °LjjJ 


9.1 


(Triticum aestivum) ~_ai 


13.0 


(Arachis hypogea) ^i jj^JI Jjil 


4.9 


(Surg hum bicolor) ijj 


10.0 






(Glycine max) Lj^aJ Jji 


8.0 


3juLJ JjtusL^i 






(Lactuca sativa) ^^1. 


5.0 


(Beta vulgaris) ^ jl^ jlUj^I 


9.6 


(Capsicum annuum) j^ Jili 


5.0 


(Spinacia oleracea) pJ.^ 


8.0 


(Allium cepa) J.^ 


4.0 (Lycopersicon esculentum) jJaLJa <ijjj.L> 


8.0 


(Daucus carots) jy*. 


4.5 


(Brassica oleracea) JjiL 


7.0 


(Phaseolus vulgaris) i^-"^ jl =1 j^ii. dJj^lj 


3.5 


(Brassica oleracea) l~-yj* 


6.0 


(Raphanus sativus) J^j 


5.0 


(Solanum tuberosum) UslL> 


6.0 


(Cucumis sativa) J.^. 


6.3 


(Zea may^J (maize) ijli.ijj 


6.0 


(Brassica rapa) oil 


6.5 


(Ipomoea batatas) ijJa. UalL> 


6.0 


<1jjAj JausL^j 






(Ofea europaea) tj^ij 


8.4 


(Phoenix dactylifera) ~1> 


18.0 


(Citrus limon) ^j-J 


4.8 


(Vitis spp'.) ^jliL 


6.7 


(Malus sylvestris) ^LiS 


4.8 


(Citrus paradise) ^jjjj^ .^j^i^.;^ 


4.9 


(Prunus communis) u-aU.! 


4.8 


(Citrus sinensis) JUS^j 


4.8 


(Fragaria spp.) \j.j^ 


2.5 


(Prunus persica) Jljj 


4.1 


(Punica granatum) ^Uj 


8.4 


(prunus armeniaca) ^^i^ 


3.7 


(Juglans regia) jj^. 


4.8 


(Pnsnuv Anmeitim) . li~~-ji .-ji 


4.3 






(Prunus dulcis) jjl 


4.1 



-1^1 



{^^LaiJ %50^ : i^Lj1 JjljuLECe 1 



.California Fertilizer Association (1980), Ayers and Westcot (1985) :j, 



169 



.(jjj-^jJI 3-wjjJ i-SliusV o^JuJa-aj 3S5Lt .15 ^joJaJI 



-mol B/m 3 — 



(Jju-cL^aJI f- l^jl 



-mol B/m 3 - 



(Jju-cL^aJI £ l^jl 



0.093 



(Pimm sativum) «1fj,L 

(Daucus carots) jy*. 

(Solanum tuberosum) Ualkj 

(Cucumis sativa) J.^. 

(Lactuca sativa) ^^1. 

(Brassica oleracea) JjiL. 

(Cepium grave olens) ^^J* 

(Brassica rapa) oiJ 

(Hordeum vulgare) j-j*-£ 

(2fea majwj ijj 



(Cynara scolymus) ^ 



(Raphanus sativus) J^i 

(Nicotiana tabacum) LSI 

(Me li lotus indica) Jjij-i^ 

(Cucurbita pepo) tjl 

(Cucumis meld) , 



(Sorghum bicolof) ijj 
(Me die ago sativa) Z ■-* 



0.19 


(Kci'a benghlensis) iJjaJ j^- 


0.37 


(Avena vulgare) ^lij-i. 






(Petroselium crispum) ^j^ii 






(Beta vulgaris) j^ jjjj-^ 


1 


' 


(Lycopersicun esculentum) sjjj-ij 


0.56 


(Beta vulgaris) ^ji^u jJJj-^ 


0.93-0.56 


(Gossypium hirsutum) jLl 


0.93 


■0.56 


(Asparagus officinalis) j jj lj * 



0.028 (Q'fms ii'mon) ^j-J 

(Phaseolus lunatus) dJ^aUJI i^. 

(Rubus sp.) a jS 

(Persea americand) jjlSjil 

(Citrus sinensis) JUS^j 

(Citrus paradise) ^ji;^ 

(prunus armeniaca) uiii. 

(Prunus persica) Jljj 

(Primus avium) jj$. 

(Prunus domestica) £ji 

(D'osysos fcsto) ^1^ 

(Mens carica) yp, 

( Vitis vinifera) ^^t 

(Juglans regia) jj^. 

(Carya illinoensis) ^j^j jj^- 

(Vigna sinensis) ^LjjJ 

(Allium cepa) J^ 

(Allium sativum) *.ji 

(Ipomoea batatas) JjJi UalLj 

(Triticum aestivum) ~_ai 

0.046 (Phaesolus aureux) 4^tj ^LjjJ 

0.074 (Fragaria sp.) \j.j^ 

(Phaesolus vulgaris) (5JS) «LJj-ali 

(Seasmum indicum) ^uu 
0.093 (Capsicum annum) j*aJ Jila 



.Keren andBingham (1985) :j, 



170 



(LxluL&JI JikUwdl Calais i*-?^ ■ ^ i3-^^JI 



iUmbaJI oL^iidl jj£ 



<Lxuujd <LuUajjj 4-xSjj^jI 



Jij^xaJI 4^3i 


((«) 


2.0 


1.00 


0.500 


0.420 


0.250 


0.210 


0.149 


0.125 


0.063 


0.053 



34 


8 


31 


16 


28 


30 


- 


36 


25 


60 


- 


72 


22 


120 


19 


240 


_ 


300 



10 
18 

35 

40 
60 

70 
100 
120 
230 

270 



.Tekalign et al. (1991) : j-i^aJ 



171 



a^sLldl £l jjVl . 17 j^lflll 



gSLAJI j^UjVI 



(£) j>liaJl uj^Jl 



3JLxuaJI / JjjJI 



fjej- 1 "^' Cue 
('jtf^j-^' Cue 

^e'jLi^' Cue 

^l>^' Cue 

^jjj^J' Cue 

^^L^h^' Cue 

j j^jj^ Cue 
^>^l Cue 

. j i , ,,IKI I jj| jjJi 

i j u n II S. 11 i*jLj aj j^ 

i n i i hi * ajjl ij^jl_ij n-1j 

i * tuil * q_iJl iJIjIj qj s^ n 

i qjJLaJj 1 olL s_lS 



20.04 


12.16 


23.00 


39.10 


35.46 


48.03 


30.00 


61.01 


31.65 


62.01 


55.50 


68.07 


86.09 


55.04 


47.62 


60.19 


42.16 


42.16 


71.03 


53.00 


84.01 


74.56 


87.13 


69.10 


100.11 


16.03 


49.04 


111.07 


139.01 



Ca^ 

Mg++ 

Na+ 

K+ 

CI" 

scy- 
ccy 

HC0 3 " 

po 4 - 

N0 3 " 

CaCl 2 

CaS0 4 

CaS0 4 .2H 2 

CaC0 3 

MgCl 2 

MgS0 4 

MgC0 3 

NaCl 

Na 2 S0 4 

Na^CX, 

NaHC0 3 

KC1 

K 2 S0 4 

K 2 C0 3 

KHC0 3 

s 

H 2 S0 4 

A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 .18H 2 

FeS0 4 .7H 2 



jil£J ^^ji j%U' ljJ ^iliJL = j^jaLJL » ja. : j^jaLJLj *j=. Jl JliU ^i ^il^JL ,> Jjj 



172